In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin ''communis'' – common, universal)〔''World Book'' 2008, p. 890.〕 is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is
a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money,〔(''Principles of Communism'' ), Frederick Engels, 1847, Section 18. "Finally, when all capital, all production, all exchange have been brought together in the hands of the nation, private property will disappear of its own accord, money will become superfluous, and production will so expand and man so change that society will be able to slough off whatever of its old economic habits may remain."〕〔(''The ABC of Communism'' ), Nikoli Bukharin, 1920, Section 20〕 and the state.〔(''The ABC of Communism'' ), Nikoli Bukharin, 1920, Section 21〕〔"Withering Away of the State." In The Encyclopedia of Political Science, edited by George Thomas Kurian. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2011. http://library.cqpress.com/teps/encyps_1775.1.〕
Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism (anarchist communism) and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism, that in this system, there are two major social classes: the working class – who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society – and the capitalist class – a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production (the physical and institutional means with which commodities are produced and distributed), and that political, social and economic conflict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to this analysis, is the social ownership of the means of production.
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