|FSI_year = 2007
|FSI_rank = 14th
|FSI_category = Alert
|currency = Kyat (K)
|currency_code = MMK
|Official exchange rate = 6 Kyats
|Exchange rate = 954 Kyats
|FEC Exchange rate = 954 Kyats
|time_zone = MMT
|utc_offset = +06:30
|drives_on = rightb
|calling_code = +95
|cctld = .mm
|iso3166code = MM
|footnote_a = Some governments recognise Yangon (Rangoon) as the
|footnote_b = Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.
Myanmar ( ,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Myanmar — Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary )〕 or (also with the stress on first syllable); (:mjəmà)),〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Definition of Myanmar — Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English) )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Myanmar )〕 officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. One-third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 1,930 km (1,200 miles) forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,227 sq mi) in size. Its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).
Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia.〔Lieberman, p. 152〕 The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British conquered Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a democratic nation and then, following a coup d'état in 1962, a military dictatorship. While the military dictatorship formally ended in 2011, most of the party leaders are former military officers.
For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and Burma's myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world's longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Burma )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Myanmar Human Rights )〕 In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, Burmese Military have taken steps toward relinquishing control of the government. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country's human rights record and foreign relations, and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, however, continuing criticism of the government's treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes.
Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion.〔 The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2013, according to the Human Development Index (HDI), Myanmar had a low level of human development, ranking 150 out of 187 countries.〔
== Etymology ==
(詳細はofficially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma's colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: "Burma" became "Myanmar". The renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use "Burma" because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.
The country's official full name is the "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" (, ', ). Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form "Union of Burma" instead.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Government of the Union of Burma )〕
In English, the country is popularly known as either "Burma" or "Myanmar" .〔 Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group. ''Myanmar'' is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while ''Burma'' is derived from "Bamar", the colloquial form of the group's name. Depending on the register used, the pronunciation would be ' () or ' (). The name ''Burma'' has been in use in English since the 18th century.
''Burma'' continues to be used in English by the governments of many countries, such as Australia and Canada.〔 Official United States policy retains Burma as the country's name, although the State Department's website lists the country as "Burma (Myanmar)" and Barack Obama has referred to the country by both names. The United Kingdom uses both Burma and Myanmar in various sources. The Czech Republic uses officially Myanmar, although Ministry of Foreign Affairs mentions both Myanmar and Burma on its website. The United Nations uses ''Myanmar'', as do the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Russia, Germany, China, India, Norway, and Japan.
Most English-speaking international news media officially refer to the country by the name ''Myanmar'', including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Myanmar blast hits anti-Muslim monk's event — Asia-Pacific )〕 Reuters, and RT (Russia Today).
Myanmar is known as "Birmania" in Spanish, Italian and Romanian, as "Birmânia" in Portuguese, and as "Birmanie" in French.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=" Birmanie ou Myanmar ? Le vrai faux débat francophone " – La France en Birmanie )〕 The government of Brazil uses "Mianmar".
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』