|image_map = MEX orthographic.svg
|map_width = 220px
|image_map2 = Mexico UNOCHA.png|250px
|capital = Mexico City
|latd=19 |latm=26 |latNS=N |longd=99 |longm=08 |longEW=W
|largest_city = Mexico City
|languages_type = National language
|languages = Spanish
|demonym = Mexican
|government_type = }}
|leader_title1 = President
|leader_name1 = Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI) 15px
|leader_title2 = President of the Senate
|leader_name2 = Miguel Barbosa Huerta (PRD) 15px
|leader_title3 = President of the Chamber of Deputies
|leader_name3 = Silvano Aureoles Conejo (PRD) 15px
|legislature = Congress
|upper_house = Senate
|lower_house = Chamber of Deputies
|sovereignty_type = Independence
|sovereignty_note = from Spain
|established_event1 = Declared
|established_date1 = September 16, 1810
|established_event2 = Consummated
|established_date2 = September 27, 1821
|established_event3 = Recognized
|established_date3 = December 28, 1836
|established_event4 = First constitution
|established_date4 = October 4, 1824
|established_event5 = Second constitution
|established_date5 = February 5, 1857
|established_event6 = Current constitution
|established_date6 = February 5, 1917
|area_rank = 14th
|area_magnitude = 1 E12
|area_km2 = 1,972,550
|area_sq_mi = 761,606
|percent_water = 2.5
|population_estimate = 121,736,809〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=International Programs-Country Rankings )〕
|population_estimate_year = 2015
|population_estimate_rank = 11th
|population_density_km2 = 57
|population_density_sq_mi = 142
|population_density_rank = 142nd
|GDP_PPP_rank = 11th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $18,370〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 66th
|GDP_nominal_rank = 13th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $10,174〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 65th
|Gini_year = 2010
|Gini = 47.2
|Gini_ref = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Gini Index )〕
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = decrease
|HDI = 0.756
|HDI_rank = 71st
|currency = Peso
|currency_code = MXN
|time_zone = ''See'' Time in Mexico
|utc_offset = −8 to −5
|time_zone_DST = varies
|utc_offset_DST = −7 to −5
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +52
|cctld = .mx
|footnote_a = Article 4.° of the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples.
|footnote_b = Spanish is the ''de facto'' official language of the Mexican federal government.
Mexico (; (スペイン語:México) ), officially the United Mexican States (, ),〔 is a federal republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.〔Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., Springfield, Massachusetts, USA, Merriam-Webster; p. 733〕 Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=INEGI 2010 Census Statistics )〕 it is the eleventh most populous and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, its capital and largest city.
Pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colony's Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by economic instability and many political changes.
The Mexican-American War (1846-1848) led to the territorial cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory, to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship occurred through the 19th century. The dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system.
Mexico has one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with an abundance of natural resources such as oil and silver. It has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest GDP by purchasing power parity. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (since 1994). It is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=World in 2050 – The BRICs and beyond: prospects, challenges and opportunities )〕 The country is considered both a regional power and middle power,〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.giga-hamburg.de/dl/download.php?d=/content/staff/nolte/publications/how_to_compare_nolte.pdf )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan )〕 and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and sixth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=UNESCO World Heritage Centre — World Heritage List )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Mexico's World Heritage Sites Photographic Exhibition at UN Headquarters )〕〔Table of World Heritage Sites by country〕 In 2010 it was the tenth most visited country in the world, with 22.5 million international arrivals annually. Mexico is a member of the UN, the WTO, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and is an observer of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie since 2014.
(詳細はMēxihco'' is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica, and surrounding territories. This became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence (compare ''Latium''). It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, or vice versa. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital, Mexico City. This was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan.
Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl ''tetl'' ("rock") and ''nōchtli'' ("prickly pear") and is often thought to mean "Among the prickly pears (among ) rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain.〔Frances Karttunen (1983) ''An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl'' p.225, Texas Linguistic Series, University of Texas, Austin ISBN 978-0-2927-0365-0; 〕
The suffix ''-co'' is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "Place where Huitzilopochtli lives". Another hypothesis suggests that ''Mēxihco'' derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "Moon" (''Mētztli'') and navel (''xīctli'').〔 This meaning ("Place at the Center of the Moon") might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco. The system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the Moon. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the goddess of maguey.
The name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter 'x' in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative . This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative , represented by a 'j', evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century. This led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish language, determined that both variants are acceptable in Spanish but that the normative recommended spelling is México.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Real Academia Española — Diccionario de la lengua española — Diccionario panhispánico de dudas — Aviso actualización enlaces )〕 The majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new norm, even though the alternative variant is still occasionally used. In English, the 'x' in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the consonant cluster .
The official name of the country has changed as the form of government has changed. On three occasions (1325–1521, 1821–1823, and 1863–1867), the country was known as (Mexican Empire). All three federal constitutions (1824, 1857 and 1917, the current constitution) used the name —or the variant ,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Constitución Mexicana de 1857 )〕 all of which have been translated as "United Mexican States". The phrase , "Mexican Republic", was used in the 1836 Constitutional Laws. On November 22, 2012, president Felipe Calderón sent to the Mexican Congress a piece of legislation to change the country's name officially to simply Mexico. To be implemented, the bill needed to be passed by both houses of Congress, as well as a majority of Mexico's 31 State legislatures. As this legislation was proposed just a week before Calderón turned power over to Enrique Peña Nieto, Calderón's critics saw this as a symbolic gesture.