Malayalam 〔Laurie Bauer, 2007, ''The Linguistics Student’s Handbook'', Edinburgh〕 ( (:mɐləjaːɭəm)), sometimes referred to as Kairali, is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was designated a Classical Language in India in 2013. Malayalam has official language status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people. Malayalam is also spoken in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka; with some speakers in the Nilgiris, Kanyakumari and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu, and the Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu districts of Karnataka.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Dakshina Kannada District: Dakshin Kannada also called South Canara - coastal district of Karnataka state )〕
Malayalam most likely originated from Middle Tamil (Sen-Tamil) in the 6th century.〔Malayalam, R. E. Asher, T. C. Kumari, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02242-8, 1997〕 An alternative theory proposes a split in even more ancient times.〔 Malayalam incorporated many elements from Sanskrit through the ages and today over eighty percent of the vocabulary of Malayalam in scholarly usage is from Sanskrit. Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam, including present day Kerala state, a famous example being ''Silappatikaram''. Silappatikaram was written by Chera prince Ilango Adigal from Cochin, and is considered a classic in Sangam literature. Modern Malayalam still preserves many words from the ancient Tamil vocabulary of Sangam literature. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vattezhuttu script, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=(C. Radhakrishnan) Grantha, Vattezhuthu, Kolezhuthu, Malayanma, Devanagiri, Brahmi and Tamil alphabets )〕 As Malayalam began to freely borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit, Grantha script was adopted for writing and came to be known as ''Arya Ezhuttu''.〔(Epigraphy - Grantha Script ) Tamil Nadu State Department of Archaeology〕 This developed into the modern Malayalam script.〔Andronov, Mikhail Sergeevich. ''A Grammar of the Malayalam Language in Historical Treatment''. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1996.〕 Many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam.〔(''Manipravalam'' ) The Information & Public Relations Department, Government of Kerala.〕 The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries.〔 The first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam ''Varthamanappusthakam'', written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785.〔(Varthamanappusthakam )〕
Due to its lineage deriving from both Tamil and Sanskrit, the Malayalam alphabet has the largest number of letters among the Indian language orthographies. The Malayalam script includes letters capable of representing almost all the sounds of all Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.alsintl.com/resources/languages/Malayalam/ )〕
The word ''Malayalam'' probably originated from the Tamil/Malayalam words ''malai or mala'', meaning ''hill'', and ''elam'', meaning ''region''. Malayalam thus translates as "hill region" and used to refer to the land itself (Chera Kingdom), and only later became the name of the language.〔 The language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, and Mallealle.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Ethnologue report for language code: mal )〕
The word ''Malayalam'' originally meant only for the name of the region. "''Malayanma''" or "''Malayayma''" (meaning the language of the nation Malayalam) represented the language. With the emergence of modern Malayalam language, the name of the language started to be known by the name of the region. Hence now, the word "''Malayanma''" is considered by some to represent the olden Malayalam language. The language got the name ''Malayalam'' during the mid 19th century.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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