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Karnataka : ウィキペディア英語版

Karnataka is a state in south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed ''Karnataka'' in 1973. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru). Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea and the Laccadive Sea to the west, Goa to the north west, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the North east, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the south east, and Kerala to the south west. The state covers an area of , or 5.83 per cent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada is the most widely spoken and official language of the state.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra, in the north, and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward into the Bay of Bengal.
Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that ''Karnataka'' is derived from the Kannada words ''karu'' and ''nādu'', meaning "elevated land". ''Karu nadu'' may also be read as ''karu'', meaning "black", and ''nadu'', meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes ''Karnatak'', to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.〔See Lord Macaulay's life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: ''Early History of British India'', London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the Coromandel Coast as well.〕
With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.
== History ==

Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesize about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilization ca. 3300 BCE.〔
〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= Trade )
Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;〔From the Talagunda inscription (Dr. B. L. Rice in Kamath (2001), p. 30.)〕〔Moares (1931), p. 10.〕 the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.〔Adiga and Sheik Ali in Adiga (2006), p. 89.〕〔Ramesh (1984), pp. 1–2.〕
These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.〔From the Halmidi inscription (Ramesh 1984, pp. 10–11.)〕〔Kamath (2001), p. 10.〕 These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas,〔The Chalukyas hailed from present-day Karnataka (Keay (2000), p. 168.)
〕〔The Chalukyas were native ''Kannadigas'' (N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath in Kamath (2001), p. 57.)〕 the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta〔Altekar (1934), pp. 21–24.〕〔Masica (1991), pp. 45–46.〕 and the Western Chalukya Empire,〔Balagamve in Mysore territory was an early power centre (Cousens (1926), pp. 10, 105.)〕〔Tailapa II, the founder king was the governor of Tardavadi in modern Bijapur district, under the Rashtrakutas (Kamath (2001), p. 101.).
〕 which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of 12th century.〔Kamath (2001), p. 115.〕〔Foekema (2003), p. 9.〕 Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of 11th century.〔Sastri (1955), p.164〕 The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.〔
At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.〔Kamath (2001), pp. 132–134.〕〔Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359, 361.〕〔Foekema (1996), p. 14.〕〔Kamath (2001), pp. 122–124.〕 The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, ''Hosapattana'' (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.〔Kamath (2001), pp. 157–160.〕〔Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p. 188.〕
In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.〔Kamath (2001), pp. 190–191.〕 The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.〔Kamath (2001), p. 201.〕〔Kamath (2001), p. 202.〕 The Bahamani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style.〔Kamath (2001), p. 207.〕 During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.〔A History of India by Burton Stein p.190〕 In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.〔Kamath (2001), p. 171.〕 With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tippu Sultan.〔Kamath (2001), pp. 171, 173, 174, 204.〕 To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tippu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan's death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799.〔Kamath (2001), pp. 231–234.〕 The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.
As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 - were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.
After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its ''Rajpramukh'' (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973. In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur District played an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong manufacturing and industrial base.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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