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Lyon : ウィキペディア英語版

Lyon or Lyons ( or ;〔(Oxford Dictionary of English ) (retrieved 2014-08-19)〕 , locally: (:lijɔ̃); ) is a city in east-central France, in the Rhône-Alpes region, situated between Paris and Marseille. The correct spelling in French is ''Lyon'', but the spelling ''Lyons'' is sometimes specified in English, particularly in newspaper style guides. Lyon is located about from Paris, from Marseille, from Strasbourg, from Geneva, and from Turin. The residents of the city are called ''Lyonnais''.
The municipality (commune) of Lyon has a population of 491,268 (January 2011)〔 and is France's third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the seat of the metropolis of Lyon, and the capital of both the Rhône-Alpes region and the Rhône département. The greater metropolitan area of Lyon, a concept for statistical purposes that is not an administrative division, has a population of 2,214,068 (2012), which makes it the second-largest metropolitan area in France after Île-de-France (Paris).〔
The city is known for its historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Lyon was historically known as an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Since the late 20th century, it has developed a reputation as the capital of gastronomy in France and in the world.
It has a significant role in the history of cinema due to Auguste and Louis Lumière, who invented the cinematographe in Lyon. The city is also known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights.
Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries. The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, and in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, Euronews, and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2011. It ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings.

According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered Munatius Plancus and Lepidus, lieutenants of the assassinated Julius Caesar and governors of central and Transalpine Gaul, respectively, to found a city for a group of Roman refugees. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne (a town about 30 km to the south) by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. Dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called ''Colonia Copia Felix Munatia'', a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. The city became increasingly referred to as ''Lugdunum'' (and occasionally ''Lugudunum''〔Cassius Dio, ''Roman History'', Book 46: ''Lepidus and Lucius Plancus () founded the town called Lugudunum, now known as Lugdunum''〕). The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century ''Endlicher Glossary''.〔''Lugduno - desiderato monte: dunum enim montem'' Lugduno: "mountain of yearning"; dunum of course is mountain. www.maryjones.us/ctexts/endlicher_glossary.html〕 In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lug()dunon, after the Celtic god Lugus ('Light', cognate with Old Irish ''Lugh'', Modern Irish ''Lú''), and ''dúnon'' (hill-fort).
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa recognized that Lugdunum's position on the natural highway from northern to south-eastern France made it a natural communications hub, and he made Lyon the starting point of the principal Roman roads throughout Gaul. It then became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two navigable rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul. Two emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators, and Caracalla. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "''Primat des Gaules''" and the city often referred to as the "''capitale des Gaules''".
The Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina (Blandine), Pothinus (Pothin), and Epipodius (Épipode), among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner Irenaeus.
Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were resettled by the military commander of the west, Aëtius, at Lugdunum. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I. It later was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century.
Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, which is a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution".〔Braudel 1984 p. 327〕 In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic countinghouse of France. (Even the Bourse (treasury), built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air.) When international banking moved to Genoa, then Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacres.
During the French Revolution, Lyon rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins. In 1793, the city was assaulted by the Revolutionary armies and under siege for over two months before eventually surrendering. Several buildings were destroyed, especially around the Place Bellecour. Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people. A decade later, Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period.
During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. (Italian influence on Lyon's architecture are still visible among historic buildings.) Thanks to the silk trade, the city became an important industrial town during the 19th century. In 1831 and 1834, the ''canuts'' (silk workers) of Lyon staged two major uprisings for better working conditions and pay. The 1831 uprising had one of the first recorded uses of the black flag as an emblem of protest.
In 1862, the world's first urban funicular railway was built between Lyon and La Croix-Rousse.
During World War II, Lyon was a centre for the occupying German forces, as well as a stronghold of resistance. The ''traboules'' (secret passages) through houses enabled the local people to escape Gestapo raids. On 3 September 1944, the city was liberated by the 1st Free French Division and the Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur. The city is now home to a resistance museum. ''(See also Klaus Barbie.)''

File:Lion place Sathonay Lyon.JPG|The lion has been the symbol of the city for centuries and is represented throughout the city.
File:Lyon la Saone et fourviere.JPG|Lyon in the 18th century|alt=Lyon in the 18th century
File:Seige of lyon.jpg|Lyon under siege in 1793|alt=Lyon under siege (1793)
File:Lyon river view c1860.jpg|Lyon in 1860|alt=Lyon in 1860
File:Berges du Rhône.JPG|Lyon in 2007|alt=Lyon in 2007

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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