Geneva (, (フランス語:Genève) (:ʒə.nɛv), , (ドイツ語:Genf) (:ɡɛnf), (:dʒiˈneːvra), ) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.
The municipality ''(ville de Genève)'' has a population () of , and the canton (which is essentially the city and its inner-ring suburbs) has residents. In 2011, the compact ''agglomération franco-valdo-genevoise ''(''Greater Geneva ''or'' Grand Genève'') had 915,000 inhabitants in both – Switzerland and France (< 30mins distance). Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "''Métropole lémanique''" contains a population of 1.25 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area (Vevey, Montreux) and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud (< 60mins distance).
Geneva is a global city, a financial center, and worldwide center for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many of the agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world.〔François Modoux, "La Suisse engagera 300 millions pour rénover le Palais des Nations", ''Le Temps'', Friday 28 June 2013, page 9.〕 It is also the place where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
Geneva was ranked as the world's ninth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, ahead of Frankfurt, and third in Europe behind London and Zurich. A 2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world (behind Vienna and Zurich for expatriates; it is narrowly outranked by Zurich).〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.mercer.com/qualityofliving ), last updated 28 April 2009.〕 The city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2009 and 2011, Geneva was ranked as, respectively, the fourth and fifth most expensive city in the world.
== Toponym ==
The city was mentioned in Latin texts (Caesar) with the spelling ''Genava'', probably from a Celtic toponym ''
*genawa-'' from the stem ''
*genu-'' ("bend, knee"), in the sense of a bending river or estuary.
The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as '' pagus major Genevensis'' or ''Comitatus Genevensis'' (also ''Gebennensis''), after 1400 becoming the ''Genevois'' province of Savoy (albeit not extending to the city proper, until the Reformation the seat of the bishop of Geneva).
The name takes various forms in modern languages, ''Geneva'' in English, (フランス語:Genève) (:ʒ(ə)nɛv),〔Word Reference: (Genève ).〕 (ドイツ語:Genf) , (イタリア語:Ginevra) (:dʒiˈneːvra), and (ロマンシュ語:Genevra).
The city in origin shares its name, ''
*genawa'' "estuary", with the Italian port city of Genoa (in Italian ''Genova'').
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