Kozhikode (), also known as Calicut, is a city in the state of Kerala in southern India on the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode is the third largest city in Kerala〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Urban Morphology )〕 and is part of the second largest urban agglomeration in Kerala with a metropolitan population of 2,030,519 as per 2011 census. The city lies about north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram.
During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, Kozhikode was dubbed the "City of Spices" for its role as the major trading point of eastern spices.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Lectures 26–27 )〕 It was the capital of an independent kingdom ruled by the Samoothiris (Zamorins) in the Middle Ages and later of the erstwhile Malabar District under British rule. Arab merchants traded with the region as early as 7th century, and Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498, thus opening a trade route between Europe and Malabar. A Portuguese factory and fort was intact in Kozhikode for short period (1511–1525, until the Fall of Calicut), the English landed in 1615 (constructing a trading post in 1665), followed by the French (1698) and the Dutch (1752). In 1765, Mysore captured Kozhikode as part of its occupation of the Malabar Coast. Kozhikode, once a famous cotton-weaving center, gave its name to the Calico cloth.〔"Kozhikode." ''Encyclopædia Britannica''. 18 November 2011.〕
On 7 June 2012, Kozhikode was given the tag of "City of Sculptures" (Shilpa Nagaram) because of the various architectural sculptures located in various parts of the city. In May 2015, a food programme called Operation Sulaimani was introduced to help people who cannot afford a meal to have food with dignity.
According to data compiled by economics research firm ''Indicus Analytics'' on residences, earnings and investments, Kozhikode ranked as the second best city in India to reside in.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Best cities to live, invest and earn in ) Indicus considered six parameters: health, education, environment, safety, public facilities and entertainment〕 It was ranked eleventh among Tier-II Indian cities in job creation by a study conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2007.〔http://www.assocham.org/prels/shownews.php?id=1316〕 Kozhikode city continues to be a centre of flourishing domestic and international trade. Its contribution to all round development of the district in trade, commerce and economic development over the years is spectacular. Kozhikode city is the marketing centre for commodities like pepper coconut, coffee, rubber, lemon grass oil etc., produced in Kozhikode and the neighbouring districts of Wayanad, Malappuram and Kannur.〔("Kozhikode (Calicut), Kerala, India - Kozhikode (Calicut) Hotels, Kozhikode (Calicut) resorts, Kozhikode (Calicut) tourism, Kozhikode (Calicut) real estate and Kozhikode (Calicut) businesses" ).〕
== Etymology ==
The name ''Kozhikode'' derives, from the Tamil words ''koyil'' (palace) plus ''kota'' (fort), meaning "fortified palace." The place was also referred to as ''Chullikkad'', meaning "shrubby jungle," probably referring to the marshy nature of the land. Linguistically, ''ya'' and ''zha'' are interchangeable in Malayalam, and ''kode'' stands for fort (kotta). While the city has been known by different names by people of other lands, Malayalees have called it ''Kozhikode''.
The Arabs called it قَالِقُوط ''Qāliqūṭ'' (IPA: qˠaːliqˠːuːtˤ). The Tamils called the city ''Kallikkottai'' while for the Chinese it was ''Kalifo'', in Kannada ಕಲ್ಲಿಕೋಟೆ (Kallikoate).
Although the city's official name is Kozhikode, in English it is sometimes known by its anglicised version, ''Calicut''.〔M.G.S. Narayanan, ''Calicut: The City of Truth'' (2006) Calicut University Press, Kozhikode.〕
The word ''calico'', a fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth that was exported from the port of Kozhikode, is thought to have been derived from ''Calicut''.〔Encyclopædia Britannica (2008). ''calico''〕 It is the Historical Capital of Kerala as the history dates back to 1498 AD when Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad near Calicut.
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