|birth_date = 7–2 BC
|birth_place = Herodian Tetrarchy, Roman Empire
|death_place = Judea, Roman Empire
|death_date = AD 30–33
(aged 31–39; traditionally 33)
|death_cause = Crucifixion
|home_town = Nazareth, Galilee
Jesus (; (ギリシア語:Ἰησοῦς) ; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Messiah (or Christ) of the Old Testament.
Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, and historians consider the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) to be the best sources for investigating the historical Jesus.〔 Most scholars agree that Jesus was a Galilean, Jewish rabbi who preached his message orally, was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. In the current mainstream view, Jesus was an apocalyptic preacher and the founder of a restoration movement within Judaism, although some prominent scholars argue that he was not apocalyptic.〔 After Jesus' death, his followers believed he was resurrected, and the community they formed eventually became the Christian church. The widely accepted calendar era, abbreviated as "AD" or sometimes as "CE", is based on the birth of Jesus.
Christians believe that Jesus has a "unique significance" in the world. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, whence he will return. Most Christians believe Jesus enables humans to be reconciled to God, and will judge the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection,〔 an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology; though some believe Jesus's role as savior has more existential or societal concerns than the afterlife, and a few notable theologians have suggested that Jesus will bring about a universal reconciliation.〔Richard Bauckham, ("Universalism: a historical survey" ), ''Themelios'' 4.2 (September 1978): 47–54.〕 The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of a Divine Trinity. A few Christian groups reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural.
In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as ) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah, second in importance only to Muhammad.〔 To Muslims, Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was neither the son of God nor the victim of crucifixion. According to the Quran, Jesus was not crucified but was physically raised into Heaven by God. Judaism rejects the Christian and Islamic belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill the Messianic prophecies in the Tanakh.
== Etymology ==
A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes supplemented with the father's name or the individual's hometown.〔 Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth" (e.g., Mark 10:47). Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3), "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55), or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22). In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45).
The name ''Jesus'' is derived from the Latin ''Iesus'', a transliteration of the Greek ('). The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew (''Yeshua''), a variant of the earlier name (''Yehoshua''), in English "Joshua".〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/joshua )〕 The name ''Yeshua'' appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus. The first-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς). The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation".
Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ". The word ''Christ'' is derived from the Greek (''Christos''),〔 which is a translation of the Hebrew (''(unicode:Meshiakh)''), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah". Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). In postbiblical usage, ''Christ'' became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ"—but originally it was a title. The term "Christian" (meaning "one who owes allegiance to the person Christ" or simply "follower of Christ") has been in use since the first century.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title= G5546 Χριστιανός )〕
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