The Greek language distinguishes at least four different ways as to how the word love is used. Ancient Greek has four distinct words for love: ''agápe'', ''éros'', ''philía'', and ''storgē''. However, as with other languages, it has been historically difficult to separate the meanings of these words when used outside of their respective contexts. Nonetheless, the senses in which these words were generally used are as follows:
* ''Agápe'' ( ''agápē''〔(ἀγάπη ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus〕) means "love: esp. brotherly love, charity; the love of God for man and of man for God." ''Agape'' is used in ancient texts to denote feelings for one's children and the feelings for a spouse, and it was also used to refer to a love feast. Agape is used by Christians to express the unconditional love of God for his ''children''. This type of love was further explained by Thomas Aquinas as "to will the good of another."〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=St. Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 26, 4, corp. art )〕
* ''Éros'' ( ''érōs'') means "love, mostly of the sexual passion."〔(ἔρως ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus〕 The Modern Greek word "''erotas''" means "intimate love." Plato refined his own definition: Although ''eros'' is initially felt for a person, with contemplation it becomes an appreciation of the beauty within that person, or even becomes appreciation of beauty itself. Plato does not talk of physical attraction as a necessary part of love, hence the use of the word platonic to mean, "without physical attraction." In the ''Symposium'', the most famous ancient work on the subject, Plato has Socrates argue that ''eros'' helps the soul recall knowledge of beauty, and contributes to an understanding of spiritual truth, the ideal "Form" of youthful beauty that leads us humans to feel erotic desire – thus suggesting that even that sensually based love aspires to the non-corporeal, spiritual plane of existence; that is, finding its truth, just like finding any truth, leads to transcendence. Lovers and philosophers are all inspired to seek truth through the means of ''eros.''
* ''Philia'' ( ''philía'') means "affectionate regard, friendship," usually "between equals."〔(φιλία ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus〕 It is a dispassionate virtuous love, a concept developed by Aristotle. In his best-known work on ethics, Nicomachean Ethics, ''philia'' is expressed variously as loyalty to friends, family, and community, and requires virtue, equality, and familiarity. Furthermore, in the same text ''philos'' denotes a general type of love, used for love between family, between friends, a desire or enjoyment of an activity, as well as between lovers.
* ''Storge'' ( ''storgē'') means "love, affection" and "especially of parents and children"〔(στοργή ), Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', on Perseus〕 It's the common or natural empathy, like that felt by parents for offspring. Rarely used in ancient works, and then almost exclusively as a descriptor of relationships within the family. It is also known to express mere acceptance or putting up with situations, as in "loving" the tyrant.
== See also ==
*Diotima of Mantinea
*''The Four Loves'' by C. S. Lewis
*Intellectual virtue – Greek words for knowledge
*Restoration of Peter
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