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Cartography : ウィキペディア英語版

Cartography (from Greek χάρτης ''khartēs'', "map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:
*Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.
*Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.
*Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization.
*Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization.
*Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design.
Modern cartography is largely integrated with geographic information science (GIScience) and constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.

The earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the definition of "map" is not sharp and because some artifacts speculated to be maps might actually be something else. A wall painting, which may depict the ancient Anatolian city of Çatalhöyük (previously known as Catal Huyuk or Çatal Hüyük), has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE. Among the prehistoric alpine rock carvings of Mount Bego (F) and Valcamonica (I), geometric patterns (dotted rectangles and lines) are widely interpreted〔Bicknell, Clarence (1913). ''A Guide to the prehistoric Engravings in the Italian Maritime Alps, Bordighera''.〕〔Delano Smith, Catherine (1987). ''Cartography in the Prehistoric Period in the Old World: Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa''. In: Harley J.B., Woodward D. (eds.), ''The History of Cartography: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient and Mediaeval Europe and the Mediterranean v. 1'', Chicago: 54-101 (online ), retrieved December 2, 2014.〕 in archaeological literature as a plan depiction of cultivated plots.〔Arcà, Andrea (2004). ''The topographic engravings of the Alpine rock-art: fields, settlements and agricultural landscapes''. In Chippindale C., Nash G. (eds.) ''The figured landscapes of Rock-Art'', Cambridge University Press, pp. 318-349; (online academia.edu ), retrieved December 2, 2014.〕 Defined as "topographic representations" and well dated to the 4th millennium BC, they witness the introduction of the agriculture in the alpine territory.〔Arcà, Andrea (2007). ''Le raffigurazioni topografiche, colture e culture preistoriche nella prima fase dell’arte rupestre di Paspardo, le più antiche testimonianze iconografiche nella storia dell’agricoltura e della topografia''. In Fossati A.E. (ed.), ''La castagna della Vallecamonica, Paspardo, arte rupestre e castanicoltura'', Paspardo, pp. 35-56. Online as a TRACCE open access papers http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/?p=4027, retrieved December 2, 2014.〕 Other known maps of the ancient world include the Minoan "House of the Admiral" wall painting from c. 1600 BCE, showing a seaside community in an oblique perspective and an engraved map of the holy Babylonian city of Nippur, from the Kassite period (14th12th centuries BCE).〔(Uchicago.edu ) The Nippur Expedition〕 The oldest surviving world maps are the Babylonian world maps from the 9th century BCE. One shows Babylon on the Euphrates, surrounded by a circular landmass showing Assyria, Urartu and several cities, in turn surrounded by a "bitter river" (Oceanus), with seven islands arranged around it. Another depicts Babylon as being further north from the center of the world.〔
Topographic compositions were also carved in the alpine rock art during the Iron Age. Best known is the Bedolina Map, in Valcamonica, with a composition dated to the 6th-4th century BC.〔Turconi, Cristina (1997). ''The map of Bedolina, Valcamonica Rock Art'', TRACCE Online Rock Art Bulletin 9, online http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/?p=2422
〕 The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps, beginning at latest with Anaximander in the 6th century BC. In the 2nd century AD, Ptolemy produced his treatise on cartography, Geographia.〔J. L. Berggren, Alexander Jones; ''Ptolemy's Geography By Ptolemy'', Princeton University Press, 2001 ISBN 0-691-09259-1〕 This contained Ptolemy's world map – the world then known to Western society ''(Ecumene)''. As early as the 8th century, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic.
In ancient China, geographical literature spans back to the 5th century BC. The oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BC, during the Warring States period. In the book of the ''Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao'', published in 1092 by the Chinese scientist Su Song, a star map on the equidistant cylindrical projection. Although this method of charting seems to have existed in China even prior to this publication and scientist, the greatest significance of the star maps by Su Song is that they represent the oldest existent star maps in printed form.
Early forms of cartography of India included the locations of the Pole star and other constellations of use.〔 These charts may have been in use by the beginning of the Common Era for purposes of navigation.
Mappa mundi are the Medieval European maps of the world. Approximately 1,100 mappae mundi are known to have survived from the Middle Ages. Of these, some 900 are found illustrating manuscripts and the remainder exist as stand-alone documents.〔Woodward, p. 286 〕
The Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi produced his medieval atlas ''Tabula Rogeriana'' in 1154. He incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East, gathered by Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to create the most accurate map of the world up until his time. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries.〔S. P. Scott (1904), ''History of the Moorish Empire'', pp. 461–462.〕
In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass, telescope and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. In 1492, Martin Behaim, a German cartographer, made the oldest extant globe of the Earth.〔(Globes and Terrain Models – Geography and Maps: An Illustrated Guide ), Library of Congress〕
Johannes Werner refined and promoted the Werner projection. In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map (''Universalis Cosmographia'') bearing the first use of the name "America". Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero was the author of the first known planisphere with a graduated Equator (1527). Italian cartographer Battista Agnese produced at least 71 manuscript atlases of sea charts.
Due to the sheer physical difficulties inherent in cartography, map-makers frequently lifted material from earlier works without giving credit to the original cartographer. For example, one of the most famous early maps of North America is unofficially known as the "Beaver Map", published in 1715 by Herman Moll. This map is an exact reproduction of a 1698 work by Nicolas de Fer. De Fer in turn had copied images that were first printed in books by Louis Hennepin, published in 1697, and François Du Creux, in 1664. By the 18th century, map-makers started to give credit to the original engraver by printing the phrase "After (original cartographer )" on the work.〔"Map Imitation" in (Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery ), a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada〕

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