Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest examples include Cylinder seals and other objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The earliest known form of woodblock printing came from China dating to before 220 A.D.〔Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas", 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0-7141-1447-2〕 Later developments in printing include the movable type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Great Chinese Inventions )〕 The printing press, a more efficient printing process for western languages with their more limited alphabets, was developed by Johannes Gutenberg in the fifteenth century.〔Rees, Fran. ''(Johannes Gutenberg: Inventor of the Printing Press )''〕
Modern printing is done typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is also frequently done on metals, plastics, cloth and composite materials. On paper it is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing.
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