Words near each other
・ "O" Is for Outlaw
・ "O"-Jung.Ban.Hap.
・ "Ode-to-Napoleon" hexachord
・ "Oh Yeah!" Live
・ "Our Contemporary" regional art exhibition (Leningrad, 1975)
・ "P" Is for Peril
・ "Pimpernel" Smith
・ "Polish death camp" controversy
・ "Pro knigi" ("About books")
・ "Prosopa" Greek Television Awards
・ "Pussy Cats" Starring the Walkmen
・ "Q" Is for Quarry
・ "R" Is for Ricochet
・ "R" The King (2016 film)
・ "Rags" Ragland
・ ! (album)
・ ! (disambiguation)
・ !!
・ !!!
・ !!! (album)
・ !!Destroy-Oh-Boy!!
・ !Action Pact!
・ !Arriba! La Pachanga
・ !Hero
・ !Hero (album)
・ !Kung language
・ !Oka Tokat
・ !PAUS3
・ !T.O.O.H.!
・ !Women Art Revolution

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

wine : ウィキペディア英語版

Wine (from Latin ''vinum'') is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. Due to the natural chemical balance, grapes ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. The celebrated variations result from the very complex interactions between the biochemical development of the fruit, reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir (the special characteristics imparted by geography, geology, climate and plant genetics) and subsequent appellation (the legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown), along with human intervention in the overall process.
Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of wine to date was found in the country of Georgia, where 8,000-year-old wine jars were uncovered.〔 Traces of wine have also been found in Iran with 7,000-year-old wine jars and in Armenia with the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery, which is by far considered to be the earliest known winery.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/01/110111-oldest-wine-press-making-winery-armenia-science-ucla/ )〕〔http://www.ioa.ucla.edu/publications/backdirt/backdirt-2011/Backdirt%202011.pdf〕 The earliest form of grape-based fermented drink however, was found in northern China, where archaeologists discovered 9,000-year-old pottery jars. Wine had reached the Balkans by  BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. It has been consumed for its intoxicating effects throughout history and the psychoactive effects are evident at normal serving sizes.
Wines made from produce besides grapes include rice wine and innumerable fruit wines, of which some of the best-known are pomegranate wine, apple wine and elderberry wine.
Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians〔(【引用サイトリンク】 Isis & Osiris )〕 and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist.
(詳細はNeolithic site of Hajji Firuz in the northern Zagros Mountains or early Chalcolithic in the northern edge of the Middle East. The earliest chemically attested grape wine in the world was discovered at Hajji Firuz in the northwestern Zagros Mountains of Kurdistan, ca. 5400 BC. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine may slightly predate this, and the earliest wine making likely have taken place in Trans-Caucasia (including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), through the region between Eastern Turkey, and North West Iran.〔http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-beer-archaeologist-17016372/?no-ist〕〔http://www.penn.museum/sites/biomoleculararchaeology/?page_id=82〕
The earliest form of grape-based fermented drink was found in northern China, where archaeologists discovered 9,000-year-old pottery jars,〔 while the earliest archaeological evidence of wine particles found has been in Georgia, where archaeologists discovered evidence of wine residue inside ceramic jars that were dated back some 8000 years〔http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/04/20/georgia.wine.heritage/〕〔http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/7307e952-f50b-11e2-b4f8-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3XMSItvDh〕 and Iran ( BC).〔 The earliest evidence of wine production was discovered in Armenia within the Areni-1 winery in 2007 and is at least 6,100 years old, making it the oldest winery in the world. The development of a winery implies wine had started being produced much earlier.〔〔〔|Booze Traveler Season 1 Episode 11 The Armenian Trail 02;| ().〕A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than ''Vitis vinifera'', which was introduced there 6,000 years later.〔
The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Lebanese, Syrian and Israeli coast.〔McGovern, Patrick E. 2003. Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton University Press〕 The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and then throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact.〔MIT technology helps map ancient Phoenician shipwrecks MIT press release.〕 As the first great traders in wine (''cherem''), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, again similar to retsina.
The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings demonstrating soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid King, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine to the king.
Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC.
The first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as ''madhu''.〔J. Robinson (ed) ''The Oxford Companion to Wine'' Third Edition, pp. 355–356 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0-19-860990-6〕
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production.〔H. Johnson ''Vintage: The Story of Wine'' pg 82–89 Simon and Schuster 1989 ISBN 0-671-68702-6〕 The Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels keeps them fresh and free from a vinegar smell.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=www.practicalwinery.com )〕 In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted ''bastardo'' wine.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.