A monomer ( ) (''mono-'', "one" + ''-mer'', "part") is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.〔''Introduction to Polymers'' 1987 R.J. Young Chapman & Hall ISBN 0-412-22170-5〕〔Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis,Otin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter, ''Molecular Biology of the Cell,'' 2008, Garland Science, ISBN 978-0-8153-4105-5.〕 The term "monomeric protein" may also be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex. The most common natural monomer is glucose, which is linked by glycosidic bonds into polymers such as cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Most often the term ''monomer'' refers to the organic molecules which form synthetic polymers, such as, vinyl chloride, which is used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC).The process by which monomers combine end to end to form a polymer is called polymerization. Molecules made of a small number of monomer units, up to a few dozen, are called oligomers.
Amino acids are natural monomers that polymerize at ribosomes to form proteins. Nucleotides, monomers found in the cell nucleus, polymerize to form nucleic acids – DNA and RNA. Glucose monomers can polymerize to form starches, glycogen or cellulose; xylose monomers can polymerise to form xylan. In all these cases and is thus not pliable, a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl (-OH) group are lost to form H2O, and an oxygen atom links each monomer unit. Due to the formation of water as one of the products, these reactions are known as dehydration.
Isoprene is a natural monomer and polymerizes to form natural rubber, most often ''cis-''1,4-polyisoprene, but also ''trans-''1,4-polymer
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