Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image. One type of commonly known gas is steam.
The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states,〔This early 20th century discussion infers what is regarded as the plasma state. See page 137 of American Chemical Society, Faraday Society, Chemical Society (Great Britain) ''The Journal of physical chemistry, Volume 11'' Cornell (1907).〕 the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases. Bounding the lower end of the temperature scale lie degenerative quantum gases〔The work by T. Zelevinski provides another link to latest research about Strontium in this new field of study. See 〕 which are gaining increasing attention.〔for links material on the Bose–Einstein condensate see (Quantum Gas Microscope Offers Glimpse Of Quirky Ultracold Atoms ). ScienceDaily. 4 November 2009.〕 High-density atomic gases super cooled to incredibly low temperatures are classified by their statistical behavior as either a Bose gas or a Fermi gas. For a comprehensive listing of these exotic states of matter see list of states of matter.
== Elemental gases ==
The only chemical elements which are stable multi atom homonuclear molecules at standard temperature and pressure (STP), are hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2);
plus two halogens, fluorine (F2) and chlorine (Cl2).
These gases, when grouped together with the monatomic noble gases; which are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn) ; are called "elemental gases". Alternatively they are sometimes known as "molecular gases" to distinguish them from molecules that are also chemical compounds.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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