
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light. For an optical system in air, it is the distance over which initially collimated rays are brought to a focus. A system with a shorter focal length has greater optical power than one with a long focal length; that is, it bends the rays more sharply, bringing them to a focus in a shorter distance. In most photography and all telescopy, where the subject is essentially infinitely far away, longer focal length (lower optical power) leads to higher magnification and a narrower angle of view; conversely, shorter focal length or higher optical power is associated with a wider angle of view. On the other hand, in applications such as microscopy in which magnification is achieved by bringing the object close to the lens, a shorter focal length (higher optical power) leads to higher magnification because the subject can be brought closer to the center of projection. == Thin lens approximation == For a thin lens in air, the focal length is the distance from the center of the lens to the principal foci (or ''focal points'') of the lens. For a converging lens (for example a convex lens), the focal length is positive, and is the distance at which a beam of collimated light will be focused to a single spot. For a diverging lens (for example a concave lens), the focal length is negative, and is the distance to the point from which a collimated beam appears to be diverging after passing through the lens. When a lens is used to form an image of some object, the distance from the object to the lens ''u'', the distance from the lens to the image ''v'', and the focal length ''f'' are related by :$\backslash frac\; =\backslash frac+\backslash frac\backslash \; .$ The focal length of a thin lens can be easily measured by using it to form an image of a distant light source on a screen. The lens is moved until a sharp image is formed on the screen. In this case 1/''u'' is negligible, and the focal length is then given by :$f\; \backslash approx\; v\backslash \; .$ 抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』 ■ウィキペディアで「focal length」の詳細全文を読む スポンサード リンク
