A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars perpendicular to each other, dividing one or two of the lines in half. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally; if they run obliquely, the design is technically termed a saltire, although the arms of a saltire need not meet at right angles.
The cross is one of the most ancient human symbols, and has been used by many religions, most notably Christianity. It may be seen as a division of the world into four elements (Chevalier, 1997) or cardinal points, or alternately as the union of the concepts of divinity, the vertical line, and the world, the horizontal line (Koch, 1955).
== Etymology ==
The word ''cross'' comes ultimately from Latin ''crux'', a Roman torture device used for crucifixion, via Old Irish ''cros''. The word was introduced to English in the 10th century as the term for the instrument of the torturous execution of Jesus as described in the New Testament, gradually replacing the earlier word ''rood''. Crux is possibly derived from Phoenician.〔()〕 According to the Catholic Encyclopedia cross does not come from ''crux'' but form the Latin ''curio'', "to torment".〔()〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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