In science, buoyancy ( or ;〔〔 also known as upthrust) is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and (as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid.
For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat. This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational field or is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a "downward" direction (that is, a non-inertial reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body.〔Note: In the absence of surface tension, the mass of fluid displaced is equal to the submerged volume multiplied by the fluid density. High repulsive surface tension will cause the body to float higher than expected, though the same total volume will be displaced, but at a greater distance from the object. Where there is doubt about the meaning of "volume of fluid displaced", this should be interpreted as the overflow from a full container when the object is floated in it, or as the volume of the object below the average level of the fluid.〕
The center of buoyancy of an object is the centroid of the displaced volume of fluid.
(詳細はArchimedes of Syracuse, who first discovered this law in 212 B.C.〔.〕 For objects, floating and sunken, and in gases as well as liquids (i.e. a fluid), Archimedes' principle may be stated thus in terms of forces:
with the clarifications that for a sunken object the volume of displaced fluid is the volume of the object, and for a floating object on a liquid, the weight of the displaced liquid is the weight of the object.
More tersely: Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid.
Archimedes' principle does not consider the surface tension (capillarity) acting on the body, but this additional force modifies only the amount of fluid displaced, so the principle that ''Buoyancy = weight of displaced fluid'' remains valid.
The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if the surrounding fluid is of uniform density). In simple terms, the principle states that the buoyancy force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object, or the density of the fluid multiplied by the submerged volume times the gravitational acceleration, g. Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses, objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy. This is also known as upthrust.
Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum with gravity acting upon it. Suppose that when the rock is lowered into water, it displaces water of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10 newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyancy force: 10 − 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. It is generally easier to lift an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.
Assuming Archimedes' principle to be reformulated as follows,
then inserted into the quotient of weights, which has been expanded by the mutual volume
yields the formula below. The density of the immersed object relative to the density of the fluid can easily be calculated without measuring any volumes.:
(This formula is used for example in describing the measuring principle of a dasymeter and of hydrostatic weighing.)
Example: If you drop wood into water, buoyancy will keep it afloat.
Example: A helium balloon in a moving car. During a period of increasing speed, the air mass inside the car moves in the direction opposite to the car's acceleration (i.e., towards the rear). The balloon is also pulled this way. However, because the balloon is buoyant relative to the air, it ends up being pushed "out of the way", and will actually drift in the same direction as the car's acceleration (i.e., forward). If the car slows down, the same balloon will begin to drift backward. For the same reason, as the car goes round a curve, the balloon will drift towards the inside of the curve.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』