Astrology comprises several systems of divination which are based on the premise that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia (1950–1651 BCE). Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BCE). Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, creating horoscopic astrology. Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with ''Chaldean wisdom''. After the conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, and Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe and translated into Latin, helping to initiate the European Renaissance, when major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of poets such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer, and of playwrights such as Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare.
Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, and Mayans developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. In the West, astrology most often consists of a system of horoscopes purporting to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict future events in their life based on the positions of the sun, moon, and other celestial objects at the time of their birth. The majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems.〔 Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition. It was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine.
At the end of the 17th century, new scientific concepts in astronomy and physics (such as heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics) called astrology into question. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has largely declined.
Astrology is now regarded as pseudoscience〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=Astronomical Society of the Pacific )〕 since it has been shown to have no validity or explanatory power for describing the universe. Among other issues, there is no proposed mechanism of action by which the positions and motions of stars and planets could affect people and events on Earth that does not contradict well understood basic aspects of biology and physics.〔〔 Scientific testing of astrology has found no evidence to support any of the premises or purported effects outlined in astrological traditions.
== Etymology ==
The word ''astrology'' comes from the early Latin word ''astrologia'', which derives from the Greek —from ἄστρον ''astron'' ("star") and -λογία ''-logia'', ("study of"—"account of the stars"). ''Astrologia'' later passed into meaning 'star-divination' with ''astronomia'' used for the scientific term.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
| 翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース|
Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.