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South Korea
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・ South Korea at the 1956 Winter Olympics
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・ South Korea at the 1960 Summer Olympics
・ South Korea at the 1960 Winter Olympics
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・ South Korea at the 1964 Summer Olympics
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South Korea : ウィキペディア英語版
South Korea

|common_name = South Korea
|image_flag = Flag of South Korea.svg
|alt_flag = Centered taegeuk on a white rectangle inclusive of four black trigrams
|image_coat = Emblem of South Korea.svg
|alt_coat = Centered taegeuk on a hibiscus syriacus surrounded by five stylized petals and a ribbon
|symbol_type = Emblem
|national_motto =

|national_anthem = Aegukga

File:The National Anthem of the Republic of Korea.ogg

|image_map = South Korea (orthographic projection).svg
|alt_map = Projection of Asia with South Korea in green
|map_width = 220px
|capital = Seoul
|latd = 37 |latm = 33 |lats = 59.53 |latNS = N |longd = 126 |longm = 58 |longs = 40.69 |longEW = E
|largest_city = capital
|official_languages = Korean
|languages_type = Official scripts
|languages = Hangul
|ethnic_groups = 96.5% Korean
1.8% Chinese
1.7% others〔http://www.index.go.kr/potal/main/EachDtlPageDetail.do?idx_cd=2756〕
|ethnic_groups_year =
|demonym =
|government_type =
|leader_title1 = President
|leader_name1 = Park Geun-hye
|leader_title2 = Prime Minister
|leader_name2 = Hwang Kyo-ahn
|legislature = National Assembly
|sovereignty_type = Formation
|established_event1 = Established
|established_date1 = August 15, 1948
|established_event2 = Current constitution
|established_date2 = October 29, 1987
|area_rank = 109th
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|area_km2 = 100,210
|area_sq_mi = 38,691
|percent_water = 0.3 (301 km116 mi)
|population_estimate = 50,617,045〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Major Indicators of Korea )
|population_estimate_rank = 26th
|population_estimate_year = 2014
|population_density_km2 = 505.1
|population_density_mi2 = 1,308.2
|population_density_rank = 13th
|GDP_PPP = 〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=South Korea )
|GDP_PPP_rank = 13th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2015
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $36,601〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 29th
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal = 〔
|GDP_nominal_rank = 11th
|GDP_nominal_year = 2015
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $27,513〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 28th
|GDP_nominal_per_capita_year = 2015
|Gini_year = 2011
|Gini = 31.1
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = increase
|HDI = 0.891
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 15th
|currency =
|time_zone = Korea Standard Time
|utc_offset = +9
|date_format =
|drives_on = right
|calling_code = +82
|cctld =
South Korea (), officially the Republic of Korea (, ; ''lit.'' ''The Republic of Great Han''; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name ''Korea'' is derived from the ancient Kingdom of Goguryeo, also known as ''Koryŏ''. It shares land borders with North Korea to the north, and oversea borders with Japan to the east and China to the west. Roughly half of the country's 51 million people reside in the Seoul Capital Area, the second largest in the world〔R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, (Which are the largest? Why lists of major urban areas vary so greatly ), ''Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie'' 100, 277 (2009), Table 4〕 with over 25 million residents.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Current population of the Seoul National Capital Area )
Inhabited half a million years ago, the Korean civilization began with Gojoseon, with the earliest Korean pottery dating to 8000 BC.〔(Chong Pil Choe, Martin T. Bale, "Current Perspectives on Settlement, Subsistence, and Cultivation in Prehistoric Korea" ), (2002), ''Arctic Anthropology'', 39: 1-2, pp. 95-121.〕 Around 1st century BC, three Korean kingdoms emerged, the largest being Goguryeo that ruled Northeast China, parts of Russia's Primorsky Krai and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Since their unification into Silla and Balhae in the 7th century, Korea enjoyed over a millennium of relative tranquility under dynasties lasting for centuries with innovations such as Hangul, the Korean alphabet promulgated by Sejong the Great in 1446 that enabled anyone to easily learn to read and write.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Behind the Myth: The Many Invasions of Korea )〕 Its strategic and central location in East Asia led to annexation by Imperial Japan in 1910, after whose surrender in 1945, Korea was divided into Soviet and U.S. occupation zones, with the latter becoming the Republic of Korea in 1948. An invasion from North Korea in 1950 lead to the Korean War that ended in 1953 with an armistice. Despite minor incidents with the North, peace has since continued with the two agreeing to reunify peacefully and the South dominating inter-Korean politics as a regional power with the world's 10th largest defence budget.
Between 1962 and 1994, South Korea's tiger economy soared at an average of 10% annually, fueled by annual export growth of 20%,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Republic of Korea )〕 in a period called the Miracle on the Han River that rapidly and successfully transformed it into a high-income advanced economy and the world's 11th largest economy by 1995, providing valuable development models that are benefiting developing countries today.〔http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/news/2015/09/25/0200000000AEN20150925003557315.html〕 South Korea is presently the world's fifth largest exporter and seventh largest importer and a G-20 and OECD DAC member.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=South Korea: Economic and social developments )〕 Since the first free election in 1987, South Koreans have enjoyed high civil liberties and one of the world's most developed democracies,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Country analysis, industry analysis - Market risk assessment )〕 with all fundamental rights protected by a highly effective rule of law system that is rated best in East Asia by World Justice Project. Its pop culture has considerable influence in Asia, and is expanding globally as a phenomenon often called the Korean Wave. Due to a recent multicultural policy, immigration to South Korea is rising quickly, with over 220,000 accepted in 2014.〔
South Korea is East Asia's most developed country in the Human Development Index. Koreans are among the richest in the world, enjoying Asia's highest median income〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Worldwide, Median Household Income About $10,000 )〕 and average wage.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Where are you on the global pay scale? )〕 It is a top global performer in education, quality of healthcare and ease of doing business. It leads OECD countries in student skills〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=OECD Better Life Index )〕 with the highest percentage of young adults holding a tertiary education degree and Korean women receiving the world's third longest education. Driven by high-tech chaebols such as Samsung, Hyundai-Kia and LG, South Korea was named the world's most innovative country in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, ranking first in research and development spent per GDP and patents filed per GDP. It is notable for being the world's largest shipbuilder and having the world's fastest Internet speed, ranking first in e-Government,〔http://unpan3.un.org/egovkb/en-us/Reports/UN-E-Government-Survey-2014〕 4G LTE coverage, IoT devices online and second in ICT Development Index and smartphone usage.

The name ''Korea'' derives from Goryeo, itself referring to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo, the first Korean dynasty visited by Persian merchants who referred to Koryŏ (Goryeo; 고려) as Korea. The term ''Koryŏ'' also widely became used to refer to Goguryeo, which renamed itself ''Koryŏ'' in the 5th century.〔(Korea原名Corea? 美國改的名. ) ''United Daily News'' website. July 5, 2008. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 〕 (The modern spelling, "Korea", first appeared in late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.〔). Despite the coexistence of the spellings ''Corea'' and ''Korea'' in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on ''Korea'', making Japan appear first alphabetically.〔Demick, Barbara. ("Breaking the occupation spell: Some Koreans see putdown in letter change in name." ) ''Boston Globe''. September 18, 2003. Retrieved September 2, 2013.〕
After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted. The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon (Old Joseon). In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from ''Joseon'' to ''Daehan Jeguk'' (Korean Empire). The name ''Daehan'', which means "great Han" literally, derives from Samhan (Three Hans). However, the name ''Joseon'' was still widely used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names ''Han'' and ''Joseon'' coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the ''Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea'' (대한민국 임시정부/大韓民國臨時政府).
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the ''Republic of Korea'' (대한민국/大韓民國) was adopted as the legal name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term ''South Korea'' was coined, becoming increasingly common in the Western world. While South Koreans use ''Han'' (or ''Hanguk'') to refer to the entire country, North Koreans use ''Joseon'' as the name of the country.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
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