Words near each other
・ Sofia Penkova
・ Sofia Petrovna
・ Sofia Polgar
・ Sofia Poumpouridou
・ Sofia Power Plant
・ Sofia Pride
・ Sofia Prosvirnova
・ Sofia Province
・ Sofia Psalter
・ Sofi Flinck
・ Sofi Marinova
・ Sofi Mkheyan
・ Sofi Needs a Ladder
・ Sofi Oksanen
・ Sofi Tsedaka
・ Sofia (1948 film)
・ SOFIA (band)
・ Sofia (car)
・ Sofia (disambiguation)
・ Sofia (Filipino singer)
・ Sofia (film)
・ Sofia (Swedish singer)
・ Sofia Adamson
・ Sofia Adlersparre
・ Sofia Ahlbom
・ Sofia Airport
・ Sofia Airport Metro Station
・ Sofia Albertina Church
・ Sofia Alekseyevna of Russia

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Sofia : ウィキペディア英語版

| image_caption = 1st row: Sofia behind Mount Vitosha
2nd row: National Assembly Square (Monument to the Tsar Liberator, National Assembly, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral)
3rd row: Largo; National Palace of Culture
4th row: Saint Sofia Church; Statue of Saint Sofia; Tsarigradsko shose and Capital Fort
| image_flag = BG Sofia flag.svg
| image_shield = BG Sofia coa.svg
| nickname = Serdica, Sredetz (older names)〔(Sofia, Bulgaria ), SoloGuides〕
| motto = Grows, but does not age〔(【引用サイトリンク】Sofia through centuries )
(Расте, но не старее, ''Raste, no ne staree'')
| image_map =
| mapsize =
| map_caption =
| pushpin_map = Europe
| pushpin_map_caption = Sofia location within Europe
| pushpin_map1 = World
| pushpin_map_caption1 = Sofia location within the Earth
| latd = 42.70
| longd = 23.33
| coor_pinpoint =
| coordinates_type =
| coordinates_display = inlline, title
| coordinates_format =
| coordinates_footnotes =
| coordinates_region = BG
| subdivision_type = Country
| subdivision_name =
| subdivision_type1 = Province
| subdivision_name1 = Sofia City
| established_title = Settled
(by Thracians)
| established_date = 7000 years ago
| leader_party = GERB
| leader_title = Mayor
| leader_name = Yordanka Fandakova
| total_type = City
| area_total_km2 = 492
| area_blank1_title = Municipality/Province
| area_blank1_km2 = 1344
| elevation_m = 500–800
| elevation_ft = 1707–2888
| population_footnotes = 〔(Population and Demographic Processes in 2014 (Final data) ), National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria 2015〕
| population_total = 1,228,282
| population_rank = 17% of national
| population_as_of = 31 December 2014
| population_density_km2 = 2496
| population_blank1_title = Municipality/Province
| population_blank1 = 1,316,557
| timezone = EET
| utc_offset = +2
| timezone_DST = EEST
| utc_offset_DST = +3
| postal_code_type = Postal code
| postal_code = 1000
| area_code = (+359) 02
| blank_name_sec1 = Car plate prefix
| blank_info_sec1 = С, СА, СВ
| website = (www.sofia.bg )
| footnotes =
Sofia () ((ブルガリア語:София), Sofiya,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Sofia )〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=https://books.google.bg/books?id=Pf6cAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA9&dq=serdi+established+sofia&hl=bg&sa=X&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAGoVChMIjNGu_rLjxgIVhY_bCh1Esw12#v=onepage&q=serdi%20established%20sofia&f=false )〕) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. Sofia is the 15th largest city in the European Union with population of more than 1.2 million people. The city is located at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country, within less than drive from the Serbian border. Its location in the centre of the Balkan peninsula means that it is the midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, whereas the Aegean Sea is the closest to it.
Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BCE. Many of the major universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies of Bulgaria are concentrated in Sofia.〔(Internet Hostel Sofia, Tourism in Sofia ). Retrieved Jan, 2012〕 Sofia is Europe's most affordable capital to visit .

For the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe ''Serdi'', who today are most often defined as a Thracian tribe,〔〔 whereas it is also speculated that the Serdi were Celts.〔"The Cambridge Ancient History", Volume 3, Part 2: ''The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC'' by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, p. 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"〕 The Serdi and the name of emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus (53 – 117 AD) prompted the Romans to give the city the combinative name of ''Ulpia Serdica''; Ulpia is derived from an Umbrian cognate of the Latin word ''lupus'', meaning "wolf."〔Julian Bennett, ''Trajan: Optimus Princeps'' (Routledge, 1997), p. 1.〕
It seems that the first written mention of ''Serdica'' was made during his reign and the last mention was in the 19th century in a Bulgarian text (). During the Romans ''civitas Serdenisium'' was mentioned the "brightest city of the Serdi" in official inscriptions. The city was major throughout the past ever since Antiquity, when Roman emperor Constantine the Great referred to it as "my Rome", and it nearly became a capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.〔
Other names given to Sofia, such as ''Serdonpolis''(Σερδών πόλις, "City of the Serdi") and ''Triaditsa''(Τριάδιτζα, "Trinity"), were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins. The Slavic name ''Sredets'' (), which is related to "middle" (среда, "sreda") and to the city's earliest name, first appeared on paper in an 11th-century text. The city was called ''Atralissa'' by the Arab traveler Idrisi and ''Strelisa'', ''Stralitsa'' or ''Stralitsion'' by the Crusaders.
The name ''Sofia'' comes from the Saint Sofia Church, as opposed to the prevailing Slavic etymology among Bulgarian cities and towns. It is ultimately derived from the Egyptian Kemetic word ''sbÅ'' (𓋴𓃀𓄿𓇼𓇳), meaning "star, door, teaching and wisdom" and attested first in the 20th century BC in the tomb of Intef I.
This was a tradition of collection of wise literature, shared between Mediterranean cultures, which was called ''sopʰia'' (σοφία) in Greek. The earliest works where this latest name is registered are the duplicate of the Gospel of Serdica, in a dialog between two salesmen from Dubrovnik around 1359, in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman and in a Ragusan merchant's notes of 1376. In these documents the city is called ''Sofia'', but at the same time the region and the city's inhabitants are still called ''Sredecheski'' (срѣдечьскои, "of Sredets"), which continued until the 20th century. The city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name ''Sofya'' (صوفيا). In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, when the citizens created a committee of famous people, insisting for the Slavic name. Gradually, a compromise arose, officialisation of ''Sofia'' for the nationwide institutions, while legitimating the title ''Sredets'' for the administrative and church institutions, before the latter was abandoned through the years.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://sredec-sofia.org/bg/page/38/istoriya )
The city's name is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the 'o', in contrast with the tendency of foreigners to place the stress on 'i'. The female given name "Sofia" is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the 'i'.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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