:''For the lyric poet, see Simonides of Ceos''.
Semonides of Amorgos (; , variantly ; fl. 7th century BC) was an Greek iambic and elegiac poet who is believed to have lived during the seventh century BC. Fragments of his poetry survive as quotations in other ancient authors, the most extensive and well known of which is a satiric account of different types of women which is often cited in discussions of misogyny in Archaic Greece. The poem takes the form of a catalogue, with each type of woman represented by an animal whose characteristics—in the poet's scheme—are also characteristic of a large body of the female population. Other fragments belong to the registers of gnomic poetry and wisdom literature in which the Hesiodic ''Works and Days'' and the ''Theognidea'' are classed, and reflect a similarly pessimistic view of the human experience. There is also evidence that Semonides composed the sort of personal invective found in the work of his near contemporary iambographer Archilochus and the later Hipponax, but no surviving fragment can be securely attributed to such a poem.
==Name and biography==
The name "Semonides" (, ''Sēmōnídes'') is attested by an entry transmitted in two ancient lexica—the ''Etymologicum Genuinum'' and ''Etymologicum Magnum''—which apparently had Choeroboscus as its immediate source:
Simonides: in the case of the iambic poet is written with an eta, as in "sign" (''sēma''); the name of the lyric poet is written with an iota, as in "snub-nosed" (''sīmos''). — Choeroboscus〔The entry is identical in the ''Et. Gen.'' and ''Et. Mag.'', save for the attribution to Choeroboscus which is only found in the latter ().〕
The lyric poet mentioned herein is Simonides of Ceos (6th–5th centuries BC). Despite the testimony of the etymologica, every source that quotes the iambic poet spells his name identically with that of his more famous namesake,〔.〕 and the only other author who uses the form "Semonides" is Philodemus.〔Philodemus, ''On Poems'', quoted by .〕 Whatever the poet's name actually was, modern scholarship has adopted Choeroboscus' distinction between the two forms as a means of distinguishing the two poets.〔.〕 Still, the homophony of their names in ancient quotations leaves open the possibility that some fragments attributed to Simonides might actually belong to Semonides.〔; cf. .〕
Two notices in the tenth-century encyclopedia known as the ''Suda'' provide most of the extant details of Semonides' life. His primary lemma reads: "Simonides (), son of Crines, of Amorgos, iambic writer. He wrote elegiac poetry in two books and iambics. He was born (or 'flourished': ) 490 years after the Trojan War (693 BC ). He was the first to write iambics according to some."〔''Suda'' s.v. ( 446) ), trans. .〕 Further information has been conflated with the entry on Simmias of Rhodes; the relevant portion is:
Other contradictory dates for Semonides' birth or floruit are found in the chronographic tradition relying upon Eusebius' ''Chronicon'' (Olympiad 29.1 = 664 BC), Cyril of Alexandria (29th Olympiad = 664–661), and Clement of Alexandria (20th Olympiad = 700–697).〔The Eusebian date is found in Jerome's translation, the Armenian text of Eusebius gives the year 665; Cyril, ''Contra Iulianum'' 1.14; Clement, ''Stromata'' 1.21.131.〕 Semonides' role in the colonisation of Amorgos and his identification as a contemporary of Archilochus in the ancient testimonia recommend accepting the later dates of Eusebius and Cyril, and today he is almost universally considered to have lived in the middle and latter half of the seventh century.〔, , , . believes that the ancient testimonia represent pure conjecture and argues that Semonides lived in the late sixth century on the basis of what he perceives as modish (relatively speaking) thought in a passage of Semonides fr. 7.〕 Based upon a perceived allusion to Archilochus at Semonides 7.51–2 some have refined the chronology further, arguing that Semonides either lived after Archilochus or was his younger contemporary.〔Cf. .〕 If the ''Suda''s testimony that Semonides participated in the colonization of Amorgos is true, he likely had a political career similar to that of Archilochus, who was among the colonists of Thasos.〔.〕
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