
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a twodimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point (analogous to the origin of a Cartesian system) is called the ''pole'', and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the ''polar axis''. The distance from the pole is called the ''radial coordinate'' or ''radius'', and the angle is called the ''angular coordinate'', ''polar angle'', or ''azimuth''. ==History== The concepts of angle and radius were already used by ancient peoples of the first millennium BC. The Greek astronomer and astrologer Hipparchus (190–120 BC) created a table of chord functions giving the length of the chord for each angle, and there are references to his using polar coordinates in establishing stellar positions. In ''On Spirals'', Archimedes describes the Archimedean spiral, a function whose radius depends on the angle. The Greek work, however, did not extend to a full coordinate system. From the 8th century AD onward, astronomers developed methods for approximating and calculating the direction to Mecca (qibla)—and its distance—from any location on the Earth.〔 〕 From the 9th century onward they were using spherical trigonometry and map projection methods to determine these quantities accurately. The calculation is essentially the conversion of the equatorial polar coordinates of Mecca (i.e. its longitude and latitude) to its polar coordinates (i.e. its qibla and distance) relative to a system whose reference meridian is the great circle through the given location and the Earth's poles, and whose polar axis is the line through the location and its antipodal point.〔King (2005, (p. 169 )). The calculations were as accurate as could be achieved under the limitations imposed by their assumption that the Earth was a perfect sphere.〕 There are various accounts of the introduction of polar coordinates as part of a formal coordinate system. The full history of the subject is described in Harvard professor Julian Lowell Coolidge's ''Origin of Polar Coordinates.'' Grégoire de SaintVincent and Bonaventura Cavalieri independently introduced the concepts in the midseventeenth century. SaintVincent wrote about them privately in 1625 and published his work in 1647, while Cavalieri published his in 1635 with a corrected version appearing in 1653. Cavalieri first used polar coordinates to solve a problem relating to the area within an Archimedean spiral. Blaise Pascal subsequently used polar coordinates to calculate the length of parabolic arcs. In ''Method of Fluxions'' (written 1671, published 1736), Sir Isaac Newton examined the transformations between polar coordinates, which he referred to as the "Seventh Manner; For Spirals", and nine other coordinate systems. In the journal ''Acta Eruditorum'' (1691), Jacob Bernoulli used a system with a point on a line, called the ''pole'' and ''polar axis'' respectively. Coordinates were specified by the distance from the pole and the angle from the ''polar axis''. Bernoulli's work extended to finding the radius of curvature of curves expressed in these coordinates. The actual term ''polar coordinates'' has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana and was used by 18thcentury Italian writers. The term appeared in English in George Peacock's 1816 translation of Lacroix's ''Differential and Integral Calculus''. Alexis Clairaut was the first to think of polar coordinates in three dimensions, and Leonhard Euler was the first to actually develop them.〔 抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』 ■ウィキペディアで「Polar coordinate system」の詳細全文を読む スポンサード リンク
