Parke-Davis is a subsidiary of the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. Although no longer an independent corporation, it was once America's oldest and largest drug maker,〔(Exploring Our History: 2000 - Pfizer acquires Warner-Lambert ). from Pfizer corporate website. Accessed May 19, 2006.〕 and played an important role in medical history.
Parke-Davis was acquired by Warner–Lambert in 1970, which in turn was bought by Pfizer in 2000.
== History ==
Parke-Davis and Company was founded in Detroit, Michigan by Dr. Samuel P. Duffield, a physician and pharmacist. in 1860 Dr. Duffield owned a small drugstore at the corner of Gratiot and Woodward Avenues. Dr. Duffield made a variety of pharmaceutical preparations, including Hoffman’s anodyne and mercurial ointment, but was overwhelmed by the operations of the business.
A partnership of Dr. Duffield and Hervey Coke Parke was formed in October 1866, with George S. Davis becoming a third partner in 1867. Parke was a businessman looking for business opportunities and Davis an ambitious man with skills in sales.〔 Duffield withdrew in 1869 because of poor health and an interest in practicing medicine. The name Parke, Davis & Company was formally adopted in 1871, being incorporated in 1875.
In 1871 the company sent expeditions to Central and South America and the West Indies in search of medicinal plants. The company produced an herbal laxative drug Cascara found from Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest.〔
It was once the world's largest pharmaceutical company, and is credited with building the first modern pharmaceutical laboratory and developing the first systematic methods of performing clinical trials of new medications. The Parke-Davis Research Laboratory is a National Historic Landmark; the surrounding Parke-Davis and Company Pharmaceutical Company Plant is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The production facility on Parkdale Road in what was then Avon Township MI (site now in Rochester MI) was also a landmark in that vicinity, and is now used by PAR Pharmaceuticals.
Parke-Davis was acquired by Warner-Lambert in 1970. Warner-Lambert was bought by Pfizer in 2000.
In the case of ''Franklin v. Parke-Davis'' (2002) the company was accused of illegal marketing practices, including the promotion of off-label uses of its anticonvulsant medication Neurontin.〔(Suit: Neurontin Marketed Illegally for Bipolar Disorder ). ''About.com''. May 16, 2004.〕 The drug had only been approved for use in patients with epilepsy, but in 2001 over 80% of its $1.8 billion in sales were for indications unapproved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. In 2004, Pfizer "admitted that Parke-Davis aggressively marketed Neurontin by illicit means for unrelated conditions including bipolar disorder, pain, migraine headaches, and drug and alcohol withdrawal", and consented to $430 million in penalties although it claimed the violations originated in 1996, well before Pfizer's acquisition of Warner-Lambert.〔(Huge penalty in drug fraud Pfizer settles felony case in Neurontin off-label promotion ). San Francisco Chronicle. Friday, May 14, 2004.〕
As announced on January 22, 2007, Pfizer closed its research facilities in Ann Arbor, MI.〔(At Pfizer, Brutal Cuts And Big Changes )〕
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』