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Papua New Guinea : ウィキペディア英語版
Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG; ; ; Hiri Motu: ''Papua Niu Gini''), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.
Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world; 848 languages are listed for the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers.〔(Papua New Guinea ). Ethnologue〕 Most of the population of over 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 percent of its people live in urban centres. The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically, and many undiscovered species of plants and animals are thought to exist in the interior.
Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011, although growth is expected to slow once major resource projects come on line in 2015.〔() Retrievered on 25 June 2006.〕 Mining remains a major economic factor, however, with talks of resuming mining operations in the previously closed-off Panguna mine ongoing with the local and national governments.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Bougainville Copper Limited )〕 Nearly 40 per cent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital.〔World Bank. 2010. World Development Indicators. Washington DC.〕
At the local level, the majority of the population still live in strong customary societies and – while social life is overlaid with traditional religious cosmologies and modern practices, including conventional primary education – customary subsistence-based agriculture remains fundamental.〔 These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged within the nation's constitutional framework. The Papua New Guinea Constitution expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society"〔(【引用サイトリンク】work=Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute )〕 and for active steps to be taken in their continuing importance to local and national community life.
At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975 following almost 60 years of Australian administration. It became a separate Commonwealth realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right.
== History ==

(詳細はAgriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants.〔Diamond, J. (March 1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-03891-2.〕 A major migration of Austronesian speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC. This has been correlated with the introduction of pottery, pigs, and certain fishing techniques.
More recently, in the 18th century, the sweet potato was brought to New Guinea, having been introduced to the Moluccas by Portuguese traders, who obtained it from South America.〔Swadling, p. 282〕 The far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture; sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and gave rise to a significant increase in population in the highlands.
Although headhunting and cannibalism have been practically eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers.〔Knauft, Bruce M. (1999) ''(From primitive to postcolonial in Melanesia and anthropology )''. University of Michigan Press. p. 103. ISBN 0-472-06687-0〕〔"(Cannibalism Normal For Early Humans? )". National Geographic News. 10 April 2003.〕 For example, in 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, a missionary, Harry Dauncey, found 10,000 skulls in the island's Long Houses.〔Goldman, Laurence (1999).''(The Anthropology of Cannibalism )''. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 19. ISBN 0-89789-596-7〕 According to the writer Marianna Torgovnick, "The most fully documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties, Sixties, and Seventies, and still leave traces within certain social groups."〔Torgovnick, Marianna (1991). (''Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives'' ), University of Chicago Press. p. 258 ISBN 0-226-80832-7〕
Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Meneses and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird of paradise plumes.〔Swadling: "Such trade links and the nominal claim of the Sultan of Ceram over New Guinea constituted the legal basis for the Netherlands' claim over West New Guinea and ultimately that of Indonesia over what is new West Papua."〕 The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. The word ''papua'' is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. "New Guinea" (''Nueva Guinea'') was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from Portuguese word ''Guiné''.
In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country as a colony for some decades, beginning in 1884, as German New Guinea. The southern half was colonised in the same year by the United Kingdom as British New Guinea. With the Papua Act 1905 it transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia, which took on its administration. Additionally, from 1905, British New Guinea was renamed the Territory of Papua.
Early in World War I, German New Guinea was captured by Australian forces in a small military campaign, and after the war was given to Australia to administer as a League of Nations Mandate. Papua, by contrast, was deemed to be an External Territory of the Australian Commonwealth, though as a matter of law it remained a British possession. This was significant for the country's post-independence legal system. The difference in legal status meant that until 1949 Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia.
During World War II, the New Guinea campaign (1942–1945) was one of the major military campaigns. Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian, and US servicemen died.〔Fenton, Damien. . Australian War Memorial.〕 After World War II, the two territories were combined into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, which later was simply referred to as "Papua New Guinea".
The natives of Papua appealed to the United Nations for oversight and independence. The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September 1975, and maintains close ties. (Australia continues as the largest aid donor to Papua New Guinea). Papua New Guinea was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 10 October 1975.〔(General Assembly resolution 3368 (XXX) of 10 October 1975 )〕
A secessionist revolt in 1975–76 on Bougainville Island resulted in an eleventh-hour modification of the draft Constitution of Papua New Guinea to allow for Bougainville and the other eighteen districts to have quasi-federal status as provinces. A renewed uprising started in 1988 and claimed 20,000 lives until it was resolved in 1997.〔"(New report doubles death toll on Bougainville to 20,000 )". Radio Australia. 19 March 2012.〕 Following the revolt, the autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in 2005 and he served until 2008. He was succeeded by his deputy John Tabinaman, who continued to be re-elected as leader until the election of December 2008, which James Tanis won. As part of the current peace settlement, a referendum on independence is planned to be held sometime before mid-2020.〔"( Australia's interest in Bougainville's independence is far from locals' wishes )". ''The Guardian''. 20 May 2015〕〔"(Bougainville makes first preparations for referendum )". ''Radio New Zealand''. 17 April 2015〕
Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. The initial spark was a fight between Chinese and Papua New Guinean workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. Native resentment against Chinese ownership of numerous small businesses and their commercial success led to the rioting. The Chinese have traditionally been merchants in Papua New Guinea.〔"(Overseas and under siege" ), ''The Economist,'' 11 August 2009〕

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