New Mexico ((スペイン語:Nuevo México) (:ˈnweβo ˈmexiko); (ナバホ語:''Yootó Hahoodzo'') (:jo:tó haho:dzo)) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States. It was admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is the fifth-most extensive, the 36th-most populous, and the sixth-least densely populated of the 50 United States.
Inhabited by indigenous peoples of the Americas for many centuries before European exploration, New Mexico was subsequently part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of Mexico before becoming a U.S. territory and eventually a U.S. state. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, including descendants of Spanish colonists who have lived in the area for more than 400 years. It also has the second-highest percentage of Native Americans after Alaska, and the fourth-highest total number of Native Americans after California, Oklahoma, and Arizona. The nations in the state consist of mostly Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache peoples. As a result, the demographics and culture of the state are unique for their strong Hispanic and Native American influences, both of which are reflected in the state flag. The scarlet and gold colors of the New Mexico flag are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=New Mexico State Flag – About the New Mexico Flag, its adoption and history from )〕
New Mexico, or ' in Spanish, is often incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico. However, New Mexico was given its name in 1563, and again in 1581, by Spanish explorers who believed the area contained wealthy Indian cultures similar to those of the Mexica (Aztec) Empire. Mexico, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries later in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. Consequently, New Mexico was only a part of the independent federal republic of Mexico for 12 years, 1836 through 1848. The two developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities, with relatively independent histories.
The state's total area is .〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=CLIMATE OF NEW MEXICO )〕 The eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and three miles (5 km) west of 103° W longitude with Texas.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=MAPS )〕 On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that. The western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03' W longitude.〔 The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. The 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the northwestern corner of New Mexico. New Mexico, although a large state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about .
The New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexico's arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, especially towards the north. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexico's rivers are the Rio Grande, Pecos, Canadian, San Juan, and Gila. The Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the U.S.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Rivers of the World )〕
The U.S. government protects millions of acres of New Mexico as national forests, including:〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Find a Forest by State )〕
* Carson National Forest
* Cibola National Forest (headquartered in Albuquerque)
* Lincoln National Forest
* Santa Fe National Forest (headquartered in Santa Fe)
* Gila National Forest
* Gila Wilderness
Areas managed by the National Park Service include:
* Aztec Ruins National Monument at Aztec
* Bandelier National Monument in Los Alamos
* Capulin Volcano National Monument near Capulin
* Carlsbad Caverns National Park near Carlsbad
* Chaco Culture National Historical Park at Nageezi
* El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail
* El Malpais National Monument in Grants
* El Morro National Monument in Ramah
* Fort Union National Monument at Watrous
* Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument near Silver City
* Old Spanish National Historic Trail
* Pecos National Historical Park in Pecos
* Petroglyph National Monument near Albuquerque
* Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument at Mountainair
* Santa Fe National Historic Trail
* White Sands National Monument near Alamogordo
Visitors also frequent the surviving native pueblos of New Mexico. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state. Other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Valles Caldera National Preserve. The Gila Wilderness lies in the southwest of the state.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』