Melbourne (, AuE )〔'Melbourne' in ''Collins Dictionary'', , accessed 13 Nov. 2015〕 is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. The name "Melbourne" refers to the area of urban agglomeration (as well as a census statistical division) spanning which comprises the broader metropolitan area, as well as being the common name for its city centre. The metropolis is located on the large natural bay of Port Phillip and expands into the hinterlands toward the Dandenong and Macedon mountain ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley. Melbourne consists of 31 municipalities. It has a population of 4,442,918 as of 2014,〔 and its inhabitants are called Melburnians.〔The use of the term Melburnian can be traced back to 1876 where the case for Melburnian over Melbournian was made in the Melbourne Grammar School publication, the ''Melburnian''. 'The diphthong, ‘ou’ is not a Latin diphthong: hence, we argued this way, Melburnia would be () Latin form of name, and from it comes Melburnian.' See ''Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series'', iii, s.v. '(Melburnian )'.〕〔''Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition'' (2005) Or less commonly Melbournites. Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3〕
Founded by free settlers from the British Crown colony of Van Diemen's Land on 30 August 1835, in what was then the colony of New South Wales, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837.〔 It was named "Melbourne" by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Richard Bourke, in honour of the British Prime Minister of the day, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne.〔 It was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847,〔 after which it became the capital of the newly founded colony of Victoria in 1851.〔 During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities.〔 After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as the nation's interim seat of government until 1927.
Melbourne rates highly in education, entertainment, health care, research and development, tourism and sport,〔Langmaid, Aaron (28 April 2010). (We're sport's champion city again ). ''Herald Sun''. News Limited. Retrieved 29 December 2013.〕 making it the world's most livable city—for the fifth year in a row in 2015, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. It is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region, and ranks among the top 30 cities in the world in the Global Financial Centres Index.〔(The Global Financial Centres Index 14 (September 2013) ). Y/Zen Group. p 15. Retrieved 4 December 2013.〕〔(2012 Global Cities Index and Emerging Cities Outlook ). A.T. Kearney. p 2. Retrieved 29 December 2013.〕 Referred to as Australia's "cultural capital",〔Westwood, Matthew (26 November 2013). (The Cultural Capital's Perfect 10 ). ''The Australian''. News Limited. Retrieved 28 December 2013.〕 it is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries, and Australian contemporary dance such as the Melbourne Shuffle. It is recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a major centre for street art, music and theatre. It is home to many of Australia's largest and oldest cultural institutions such as the Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria, the State Library of Victoria and the UNESCO World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building.
The main passenger airport serving the metropolis and the state is Melbourne Airport (also called Tullamarine Airport), which is the second busiest in Australia, and the Port of Melbourne is Australia's busiest seaport for containerised and general cargo. Melbourne has an extensive transport network. The main metropolitan train terminus is Flinders Street Station, and the main regional train and coach terminus is Southern Cross Station. Melbourne is also home to Australia's most extensive freeway network and has the world's largest urban tram network.
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