Envy (from Latin ''invidia'') is an emotion which "occurs when a person lacks another's superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it".〔Parrott, W. G., & Smith, R. H. (1993). "Distinguishing the experiences of envy and jealousy." ''Journal of Personality and Social Psychology'', 64, 906–920.〕
Bertrand Russell said that envy was one of the most potent causes of unhappiness. Not only is the envious person rendered unhappy by her envy, but that person also wishes to inflict misfortune on others. Although envy is generally seen as something negative, Russell also believed that envy was a driving force behind the movement towards democracy and must be endured to achieve a more just social system.〔Russell (1930), pp. 90–91〕 However, psychologists have recently suggested that there may be two types of envy: malicious envy and benign envy—benign envy being proposed as a type of positive motivational force.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Why Envy Motivates Us )〕
== Socioevolutionary view ==
One theory that helps to explain envy and its effects on human behavior is the Socioevolutionary theory. Based upon (Charles) Darwin's (1859) theory of evolution through natural selection, socioevolutionary theory predicts that humans behave in ways that enhance individual survival and also the reproduction of their genes. Thus, this theory provides a framework for understanding social behavior and experiences, such as the experience and expression of envy, as rooted in biological drives for survival and procreation. Recent studies have demonstrated that inciting envy actually changes cognitive function, boosting mental persistence and memory.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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