Disability is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or some combination of these. A disability may be present from birth, or occur during a person's lifetime.
Individuals may also qualify as disabled if they have had an impairment in the past or are seen as disabled based on a personal or group standard or norm. Such impairments may include physical, sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities. Mental disorders (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic disease may also qualify as disabilities.
Some advocates object to describing certain conditions (notably deafness and autism) as "disabilities", arguing that it is more appropriate to consider them developmental differences that have been unfairly stigmatized by society. Others argue that disability is a result of exclusion from mainstream society and not because of impairment.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://autisticadvocacy.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/WTTAC-Adolescent-FINAL-2.pdf )〕
==Types of disability==
The term "disability" broadly describes an impairment in a person's ability to function, caused by changes in various subsystems of the body, or to mental health. The degree of disability may range from mild to moderate, severe, or profound. A person may also have multiple disabilities. Disability can be measured objectively (observed) or subjectively (self-report).
Conditions causing disability are classified by the medical community as:
* inherited (genetically transmitted);
* congenital, meaning caused by a mother's infection or other disease during pregnancy, embryonic or fetal developmental irregularities, or by injury during or soon after birth;
* acquired, such as conditions caused by illness or injury;
* of unknown origin.
Types of disability may also be categorized in the following way:
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』