Words near each other
・ Cameroon–Nigeria relations
・ Cameroon–Russia relations
・ Cameroon–United States relations
・ Camerota
・ Cameroun Express
・ Camerton
・ Camerton (band)
・ Camerton (LNWR) railway station
・ Camerton Court
・ Camerton, Cumbria
・ Camerton, East Riding of Yorkshire
・ Camerton, Somerset
・ Camerunadora
・ Cameron–Erdős conjecture
・ Cameron–Martin theorem
・ Cameroon Academy Awards
・ Cameroon Air Force
・ Cameroon Airlines
・ Cameroon Airlines Flight 3701
・ Cameroon Airlines Flight 786
・ Cameroon at the 1964 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1968 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1972 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1976 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1980 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1984 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1988 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1992 Summer Olympics
・ Cameroon at the 1996 Summer Olympics

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Cameroon : ウィキペディア英語版

File:United States Navy Band - Chant de Ralliement.ogg

|official_languages = French
|religion = Christianity
|ethnic_groups =
|capital = Yaoundé
|latd=3 |latm=52 |latNS=N |longd=11 |longm=31 |longEW=E
|largest_city =
|government_type = Dominant-party presidential republic
|leader_title1 = President
|leader_name1 = Paul Biya
|leader_title2 = Prime Minister
|leader_name2 = Philémon Yang
|legislature = National Assembly
|area_rank = 54th
|area_magnitude = 1 E11
|area_km2 = 475,442
|area_sq_mi = 183,569
|percent_water = 0.57
|population_estimate = 22,534,532〔
|population_estimate_rank = 56th
|population_estimate_year = July 2013
|population_census = 17,463,836
|population_census_year = 2005
|population_density_km2 = 39.7
|population_density_sq_mi = 102,8
|population_density_rank = 167th
|GDP_PPP_year = 2014
|GDP_PPP = $67.225 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Cameroon )
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $2,981〔
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =
|GDP_nominal_year = 2014
|GDP_nominal = $32.163 billion〔
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,426〔
|sovereignty_type = Independence
|established_event1 = Declared
|established_date1 = 1 January 1960
|established_event2 =
|established_date2 = 1 October 1961
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = steady
|HDI = 0.504
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 152nd
|Gini_year = 2007
|Gini_change = decrease
|Gini = 38.9
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank =
|currency = Central African CFA franc
|currency_code = XAF
|country_code =
|time_zone = WAT
|utc_offset = +1
|time_zone_DST = not observed
|utc_offset_DST = +1
|drives_on = Right
|calling_code = +237
|cctld = .cm
|footnote_a = These are the titles as given in the ''Constitution of the Republic of Cameroon'', Article X ( and versions). 18 January 1996. The French version of the song is sometimes called フランス語:''Chant de Ralliement'', as in Swarovski Orchestra (2004). ''National Anthems of the World''. Koch International Classics; and the English version "O Cameroon, Cradle of Our Forefathers", as in DeLancey and DeLancey 61.
|demonym = Cameroonian}}
Cameroon (; (フランス語:Cameroun)), officially the Republic of Cameroon (), is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west; Chad to the northeast; the Central African Republic to the east; and Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo to the south. Cameroon's coastline lies on the Bight of Bonny, part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean.
Cameroon is home to more than 200 different linguistic groups. French and English are the official languages. The country is often referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. The highest point is Mount Cameroon in the southwest Region of the country, and the largest cities are Douala, Yaoundé, and Garoua. After independence, the newly united nation joined the Commonwealth of Nations, although the vast majority of its territories had previously been a German colony and, after World War I, a French mandate. The country is well known for its native styles of music, particularly makossa and bikutsi, and for its successful national football team.
Early inhabitants of the territory included the Sao civilisation around Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest. Portuguese explorers reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area ''Rio dos Camarões'' (''Shrimp River''), which became ''Cameroon'' in English. Fulani soldiers founded the Adamawa Emirate in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as Kamerun.
After World War I, the territory was divided between France and the United Kingdom as League of Nations mandates. The Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s. It waged war on French and UPC militant forces until 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent as the Republic of Cameroun under President Ahmadou Ahidjo. The southern part of British Cameroons merged with it in 1961 to form the Federal Republic of Cameroon. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984.
Cameroon enjoys relatively high political and social stability. This has permitted the development of agriculture, roads, railways, and large petroleum and timber industries. Nevertheless, large numbers of Cameroonians live in poverty as subsistence farmers. Power lies firmly in the hands of the authoritarian president since 1982, Paul Biya, and his Cameroon People's Democratic Movement party. The English-speaking territories of Cameroon have grown increasingly alienated from the government, and politicians from those regions have called for greater decentralization and even secession (for example: the Southern Cameroons National Council) of the former British-governed territories.
(詳細はNeolithic Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka (Pygmies).〔DeLancey and DeLancey 2.〕 From here, Bantu migrations into eastern, southern, and central Africa are believed to have originated about 2,000 years ago.〔 The Sao culture arose around Lake Chad c. AD 500 and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the Bornu Empire. Kingdoms, fondoms, and chiefdoms arose in the west.〔
Portuguese sailors reached the coast in 1472. They noted an abundance of the ghost shrimp ''Lepidophthalmus turneranus'' in the Wouri River and named it (''Shrimp River''), which became ''Cameroon'' in English. Over the following few centuries, European interests regularised trade with the coastal peoples, and Christian missionaries pushed inland.〔
In the early 19th century, Modibo Adama led Fulani soldiers on a jihad in the north against non-Muslim and partially Muslim peoples and established the Adamawa Emirate. Settled peoples who fled the Fulani caused a major redistribution of population.〔 The northern part of Cameroon was an important part of the Arab slave trade network.〔
The Bamum tribe have a writing system, known as Bamum script or Shu Mom. The script was given to them by Sultan Ibrahim Njoya in 1896,〔DeLancey and DeLancey 59〕〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Bamum )〕 and is taught in Cameroon by the Bamum Scripts and Archives Project.〔 The German Empire claimed the territory as the colony of Kamerun in 1884 and began a steady push inland. They initiated projects to improve the colony's infrastructure, relying on a harsh system of forced labour, which was much criticised by the other colonial powers.〔DeLancey and DeLancey 125.〕
With the defeat of Germany in World War I, Kamerun became a League of Nations mandate territory and was split into French フランス語:Cameroun and British Cameroons in 1919. France integrated the economy of Cameroun with that of France〔DeLancey and DeLancey 5.〕 and improved the infrastructure with capital investments, skilled workers, and modified the system of forced labour.〔
The British administered their territory from neighbouring Nigeria. Natives complained that this made them a neglected "colony of a colony". Nigerian migrant workers flocked to Southern Cameroons, ending forced labour altogether but angering the local natives, who felt swamped.〔DeLancey and DeLancey 4.〕 The League of Nations mandates were converted into United Nations Trusteeships in 1946, and the question of independence became a pressing issue in French Cameroun.〔
France outlawed the most radical political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC), on 13 July 1955. This prompted a long guerrilla war and the assassination of the party's leader, Ruben Um Nyobé. In the more peaceful British Cameroons, the question was whether to reunify with French Cameroun or join Nigeria.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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