Bouldering is a form of rock climbing that is performed without the use of ropes or harnesses. While it can be done without any equipment whatsoever, most climbers use climbing shoes to help secure footholds, chalk to keep their hands dry, and bouldering mats to prevent injuries from falls. Unlike free solo climbing, which is also performed without ropes, bouldering problems (the path that a climber takes in order to complete the climb) are usually less than 6 meters (20 ft.) tall. Artificial climbing walls allow boulderers to train indoors in areas without natural boulders. Bouldering competitions, which employ a variety of formats, take place in both indoor and outdoor settings.〔See (''The Boulder: A Philosophy for Bouldering'' (Stone Country Press ), by Francis Sanzaro, for a more on bouldering movement, and its relation to other sports. I also found (this article ) from Sanzaro on bouldering philosophy and landscape, called "(When the Earth Enters You - Movement Aesthetics )."〕
The sport originated as a method of training for roped climbs and mountaineering. Bouldering enabled top rope climbers to practice specific moves at a safe distance from the ground. Additionally, the sport served to build stamina and increase finger strength. Throughout the 1900s, bouldering evolved into a separate discipline. Individual problems are assigned ratings based on their difficulty. There have been many different rating systems used throughout the history of the sport, but modern problems usually use either the V-scale or the Fontainebleau scale.
The growing popularity of the sport has caused several environmental concerns, including soil erosion and trampled vegetation as climbers hike off-trail to reach bouldering sites. This has caused some landowners to restrict access or prohibit bouldering altogether.
== Overview ==
Bouldering is a form of rock climbing which takes place on boulders and other small rock formations, usually measuring less than from ground to top, but in some cases can measure up to 30+ ft. Unlike top rope climbing and lead climbing, no ropes are used to protect or aid the climber. Bouldering routes or "problems" require the climber to reach the top of a boulder, usually from a specified start position. Some boulder problems, known as "traverses," require the climber to climb horizontally from one position to another.〔
The characteristics of boulder problems depend largely on the type of rock being climbed. Granite, for example, often features long cracks and slabs. Sandstone rocks are known for their steep overhangs and frequent horizontal breaks. Other common bouldering rocks include limestone and volcanic rock.〔
There are many prominent bouldering areas throughout the United States, including Hueco Tanks in Texas, Mount Evans in Colorado, and The Buttermilks in Bishop, California. Squamish, British Columbia is one of the most popular bouldering areas in Canada.〔 Europe also hosts a number of bouldering sites, such as Fontainebleau in France, Albarracín in Spain, and various mountains throughout Switzerland.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』