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Bengal : ウィキペディア英語版

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| image_caption = Map of the Bengal region
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Bengal ((ベンガル語:বাংলা) /baŋla/ or ''Bônggo'' /bɔŋɡo/) is a geographical and ethno-linguistic region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta. The Bengal region was politically divided in the 1947 Partition of India based on religion: predominantly Hindu West Bengal became a province (now a state) of India, while predominantly Muslim East Bengal became a province of Pakistan and later gained independence as Bangladesh. Some regions of the historical kingdoms of Bengal are now part of the neighbouring Indian states of Assam, Tripura, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Odisha. The Bengali people ( ''Bangali''), who speak the Bengali language ( ''Bangla''), which is Indo-Aryan, natively inhabit the region, alongside dozens of indigenous ethnic groups who speak minority languages of the Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic, and Dravidian families.
Bengal is one of the most densely populated regions on Earth, with an estimated population of 250 million people 〔http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/may/23/amitav-ghosh-vibrant-literary-world-india-naipaul-interview〕 and a population density exceeding 900 people per square kilometre. Most of the Bengal region lies in the low-lying Ganges Delta, the world's largest river delta. In the southern part of the delta lies the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest and home of the Bengal tiger. In the coastal southeast lies Cox's Bazar, the world's longest beach with a length of . While most of region is rural and agrarian, it includes two megacities: Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) and Dhaka (formerly Dacca).
The Bengal region has a rich literary and cultural heritage and immensely influenced South Asian history through the Bengal Renaissance during the 19th and early 20th centuries and the Bengali Language Movement in the mid-20th century. The Bengal was the seat of western science education and a major industrial hub in pre and post independent India and reshaped the modern Indian culture and the Bengali people made important contributions to the revolutionary movement for Indian independence and the overall Indian independence movement, and successfully prosecuted the Bangladesh Liberation War.
(詳細はVanga,'' which was a kingdom in the Bengal region during the times of Mahabharata as mentioned in Sanskrit literature.〔("Vanga" in the Encyclopædia Britannica )〕
(詳細はCopper Age settlements in the Bengal region date back 4,300 years. After the arrival of Indo-Aryans, the kingdoms of Anga, Bongo, and Magadha were formed by the 10th century BC, located in the Bihar and Bengal regions. Magadha was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and consisted of several Janapadas. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BC, located in an area in Bengal. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.〔http://www.indiavisiontravels.com/w-bengal.html〕
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata and Gauda – are mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of Gupta Empire, although details of their ruling time are uncertain. The first recorded independent king of Bengal was Shashanka who reigned in the early 7th century. After a period of anarchy, the native Buddhist Pala Empire ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across a large part of South Asia during the reigns of Dharmapala and Devapala.〔〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Bengal )〕 Bengal was invaded by a Hindu Emperor Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty for a short period in the 11th century.〔Land of Two Rivers: A History of Bengal from the Mahabharata to Mujib by Nitish K. Sengupta: p.45〕 The Pala dynasty was followed by the reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty. Islam started to appear in Bengal during the late 11th Century, in the form of Sufism. Beginning in 1202 a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate, Bakhtiar Khilji, overran Bihar and Bengal as far east as Rangpur, Bogra, and the Brahmaputra River. Although he failed to bring Bengal under his control, the expedition managed to defeat Lakshman Sen and his two sons, who moved to Bikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District), from where they ruled over a smaller area until the late 13th century.〔
From the 13th century onward, several Islamic dynasties ruled parts of Bengal, often known collectively as the Sultanate of Bengal. Some rulers such as the land-lords-Baro-Bhuyans, the Deva Kingdom, and Raja Ganesha ruled parts of the region intermittently. Bengal came once more under the direct control of Delhi when the Mughals conquered it in 1576. It became a Mughal ''subah'' and was ruled by ''subahdars'' (governors). Akbar exercised progressive rule and oversaw a period of prosperity (through trade and development) in Bengal and northern India. There were several independent Hindu states established in Bengal during the Mughal period like those of Maharaja Pratap Aditya of Jessore and Raja Sitaram Ray of Burdwan.
Bengal's trade and wealth impressed the Mughals so much that emperor Aurangzeb called the region the ''Paradise of the Nations.'' Afghans under Sher Shah Suri and his descendants ruled Bengal from 1540 to 1560. Hindu king Hem Chandra Vikramaditya (Hemu) defeated and killed Bengal ruler Muhammed Shah in 1556 and appointed Shahbaaz Khan as his governor. Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire court (1575–1717) gave way to four decades of semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad, who respected the nominal sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi. The Nawabs granted permission to the French East India Company to establish a trading post at Chandernagore in 1673, and the British East India Company at Calcutta in 1690.
Around the early 1700s, the Maratha Empire led expeditions in Bengal. The leader of the expedition was Maratha Maharaja Raghuji of Nagpur. Raghoji was able to annexe Odisha and parts of Bengal permanently as he successfully exploited the chaotic conditions prevailing in the region after the death of their Governor Murshid Quli Khan in 1727.〔SNHM. Vol. II, pp. 209, 224.〕 Portuguese traders arrived late in the fifteenth century, once Vasco da Gama reached India by sea in 1498. European influence grew until the British East India Company gained taxation rights in Bengal ''subah'', or province, following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, when Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab, was defeated by the British. The Bengal Presidency was established by 1766, eventually including all British territories north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh), from the mouths of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab. The Bengal famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives. Calcutta was named the capital of British India in 1772. The Bengal Renaissance and Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements had great impact on the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857 started near Calcutta and resulted in transfer of authority to the British Crown, administered by the Viceroy of India. Between 1905 and 1911, an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal into two zones.
Bengal has played a major role in the Indian independence movement, in which revolutionary groups were dominant. Armed attempts to overthrow the British Raj reached a climax when Subhas Chandra Bose led the Indian National Army against the British. Bengal was also central in the rising political awareness of the Muslim population—the Muslim League was established in Dhaka in 1906. In spite of a last-ditch effort to form a United Bengal, when India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines.〔 The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to Bangladesh in 1971). The circumstances of partition were bloody, with widespread religious riots in Bengal.
In East Pakistan, starting from the Bengali Language Movement of 1952, political dissent against West Pakistani domination grew steadily. The Awami League, led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, emerged as the political voice of the Bengali-speaking population of East Pakistan by the 1960s. In 1971, the crisis deepened when Rahman was arrested and a sustained military assault was launched on East Pakistan. Most of the Awami League leaders fled and set up a government-in-exile in West Bengal. The guerrilla Mukti Bahini and Bengali regulars eventually received support from the Indian Armed Forces in December 1971, resulting in a decisive victory over Pakistan on 16 December in the Bangladesh Liberation War or Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The independent nation of Bangladesh was established. However, the nation of Bangladesh, since its creation, suffered from continuous political instability and prolonged martial and autocratic rules.
West Bengal, the western part of Bengal, became a state in India. In the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist-Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress. The Left Front, led by Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) governed the state for over three decades.

Image:Asia 323bc.jpg|Asia in 323 BC, the Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gangaridai Empire of Bengal in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbours.
Image:Paharpur 03.JPG|Somapura Mahavihara in Paharpur, Bangladesh is the greatest Buddhist Vihara in the Indian Subcontinent built by Dharmapala of Bengal.
Image:Clive.jpg|The loss of the Battle of Plassey, 1757, and the execution of the last independent Nawab of Bengal marks the start of British rule over Bengal.
Image:1776 Rennell - Dury Wall Map of Bihar and Bengal, India - Geographicus - BaharBengal-dury-1776.jpg|1776 map of Bengal and Bihar by James Rennell
Image:Raja Ram Mohan Roy.jpg|Raja Ram Mohan Roy is regarded as the "Father of the Bengal Renaissance"
Image:Bengal map 1893.JPG|1893 map of Bengal
Image:Rabindranath Tagore in 1909.jpg|Rabindranath Tagore was Asia's first Nobel laureate and composer of Jana Gana Mana the national anthem of India as well as Amar Shonar Bangla the national anthem of Bangladesh.
Image:Nazrul.jpg|Kazi Nazrul Islam was one of the most prominent figures of Bengali literature and the national poet of Bangladesh.

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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