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・ Barbadian general election, 2013
・ Barbadian National Heroes
・ Barbadians
・ Barbadians in Brazil
・ Barbadillo
・ Barbadillo de Herreros
・ Barbadillo del Mercado
・ Barbadillo del Pez
・ Barbadineh
・ Barbadirame
・ Barbado da Terceira
・ Barbado River
・ Barbadoes Island (Pennsylvania)
・ Barbadoes Street Cemetery
・ Barbadori Altarpiece
・ Barbados (band)
・ Barbados (composition)
・ Barbados (disambiguation)
・ Barbados (Models song)
・ Barbados (Typically Tropical song)
・ Barbados 4–2 Grenada (1994 Caribbean Cup qualification)
・ Barbados and CARICOM
・ Barbados anole
・ Barbados Association for Children with Intellectual Challenges
・ Barbados at the 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games
・ Barbados at the 1968 Summer Olympics
・ Barbados at the 1972 Summer Olympics
・ Barbados at the 1976 Summer Olympics
・ Barbados at the 1984 Summer Olympics

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Barbados : ウィキペディア英語版

|capital = Bridgetown
|latd=13 |latm=06 |latNS=N |longd=59 |longm=37 |longEW=W
|largest_city = capital
|demonym =
|government_type = Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
|leader_title1 = Monarch
|leader_name1 = Elizabeth II
|leader_title2 = Governor-General
|leader_name2 = Elliott Belgrave
|leader_title3 = Prime Minister
|leader_name3 = Freundel Stuart
|legislature = Parliament
|upper_house = Senate
|lower_house = House of Assembly
|area_km2 = 439
|area_sq_mi = 166
|area_rank = 200th
|area_magnitude = 1 E8
|percent_water = negligible
|population_census = 277,821〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Barbados – General Information )〕|population_census_rank = 181st
|population_census_year = 2010
|population_density_km2 = 660
|population_density_sq_mi = 1,704
|population_density_rank = 15th
|GDP_PPP = $7.053 billion〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Barbados )
|GDP_PPP_rank =
|GDP_PPP_year = 2013
|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $16,015〔(Report for Selected Countries and Subjects ), International Monetary Fund.〕
|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 73rd
|GDP_nominal = $4.490 billion〔
|GDP_nominal_year = 2012
|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $16,151〔
|sovereignty_type = Independence
|established_event1 = from the United Kingdom
|established_date1 = 30 November 1966
|Gini_year =
|Gini_change =
|Gini =
|Gini_ref =
|Gini_rank =
|HDI_year = 2013
|HDI_change = decrease
|HDI = 0.776
|HDI_ref =
|HDI_rank = 59th
|currency = Barbadian dollar ($)
|currency_code = BBD
|country_code =
|time_zone = Eastern Caribbean
|utc_offset = -4
|time_zone_DST = not observed
|utc_offset_DST = -4
|drives_on = left〔 (fco.gov.uk), updated 5 June 2006.〕
|calling_code = +1 -246
|cctld = .bb
Barbados ( or ) is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles, in the Americas. It is in length and up to in width, covering an area of . It is situated in the western area of the North Atlantic and 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of the Windward Islands and the Caribbean Sea;〔(Chapter 4 – The Windward Islands and Barbados ) – U.S. Library of Congress〕 therein, it is about east of the islands of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and north-east of Trinidad and Tobago. Barbados is outside of the principal Atlantic hurricane belt.
Inhabited by Kalingo people since the 13th century, and prior to that by other Amerindians, Barbados was visited by Spanish navigators in the late 15th century and claimed for the Spanish Crown. It first appears on a Spanish map from 1511. The Portuguese visited the island in 1536, but they left it unclaimed, with their only remnants being an introduction of wild hogs for a good supply of meat whenever the island was visited. An English ship, the ''Olive Blossom'', arrived in Barbados in 1625; its men took possession of it in the name of King James I. In 1627, the first permanent settlers arrived from England, and it became an English and later British colony.
In 1966, Barbados became an independent state and Commonwealth realm with the British Monarch (presently Queen Elizabeth II) as hereditary head of state. It has a population of 277,821 people, mostly of African descent.〔 Despite being classified as an Atlantic island, Barbados is considered to be a part of the Caribbean, where it is ranked as a leading tourist destination. In 2014, Barbados ranked second in the Americas (after Canada) and 17th globally (after Belgium and Japan) on Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index.〔(). Transparency International.〕
== Etymology ==
The origin of the name Barbados is either the Portuguese word ''Barbados'' or the Spanish equivalent ''los Barbados'', both meaning "the bearded ones". It is unclear whether "bearded" refers to the long, hanging roots of the bearded fig-tree (''Ficus citrifolia''), indigenous to the island; or to the allegedly bearded Caribs once inhabiting the island; or, more fancifully, to a visual impression of a beard formed by the sea foam that sprays over the outlying reefs. In 1519, a map produced by the Genoese mapmaker Visconte Maggiolo showed and named Barbados in its correct position. Furthermore, the island of Barbuda in the Leewards is very similar in name and was once named Las Barbudas by the Spanish.
It is uncertain which European nation arrived first in Barbados. According to some sources it was the Spanish. Others believe the Portuguese, en route to Brazil,〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=''Britannica Encyclopaedia'': History of Barbados )〕 were the first Europeans to come upon the island.
The original name for Barbados in the Pre-Columbian era was ''Ichirouganaim'' according to accounts by descendants of the indigenous Arawakan-speaking tribes in other regional areas, with possible translations including "Red land with white teeth", "Redstone island with teeth outside (reefs)", or simply "Teeth".
Other names or nicknames associated with Barbados include "Bim" and "Bimshire". The origin is uncertain but several theories exist. The National Cultural Foundation of Barbados says that "Bim" was a word commonly used by slaves and that it derives from the Igbo term ''bém'' from ''bé mụ́'' meaning 'my home, kindred, kind', the Igbo phoneme /e/ in the Igbo orthography is very close to (ɪ ). The name could have arisen due to the relatively large percentage of enslaved Igbo people from modern-day southeastern Nigeria arriving in Barbados in the 18th century.
The words 'Bim' and 'Bimshire' are recorded in the ''Oxford English Dictionary'' and ''Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionaries''. Another possible source for 'Bim' is reported to be in the ''Agricultural Reporter'' of 25 April 1868, where the Rev. N. Greenidge (father of one of the island's most famous scholars, Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge) suggested the listing of Bimshire as a county of England. Expressly named were "Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire and Bimshire".〔 Lastly, in the ''Daily Argosy'' (of Demerara, i.e. Guyana) of 1652 there is a reference to Bim as a possible corruption of 'Byam', the name of a Royalist leader against the Parliamentarians. That source suggested the followers of Byam became known as 'Bims' and that this became a word for all Barbadians.〔
== History ==

(詳細はAmerindian settlement of Barbados dates to about the 4th to 7th centuries AD, by a group known as the Saladoid-Barrancoid.〔
Beckles, Hilary. ''A History of Barbados: From Amerindian Settlement to Caribbean Single Market'' (Cambridge University Press, 2007 edition).〕 In the 13th century, the Kalinago arrived from South America.〔UCTP〕
The Spanish and Portuguese briefly claimed Barbados from the late 16th to the 17th centuries. The Arawaks are believed to have fled to neighbouring islands. Apart from possibly displacing the Caribs, the Spanish and Portuguese made little impact and left the island uninhabited. Some Arawaks migrated from British Guiana (modern-day Guyana) in the 19th century and continue to live in Barbados.〔〔("Origin of the Eagle Clan" ), Pan-Tribal Confederacy of Indigenous Tribal Nations.〕〔(Descendants of Princess Marian ). (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2012.〕
From the arrival of the first English settlers in 1627–1628 until independence in 1966, Barbados was under uninterrupted English and later British governance and was the only Caribbean island that did not change hands during the colonial period. In the very early years, the majority of the population was white and male, with African slaves providing little of the workforce. Cultivation of tobacco, cotton, ginger and indigo was handled primarily by European indentured labour until the start of the sugar cane industry in the 1640s. As Barbados' economy grew, Barbados developed a large measure of local autonomy through its founding as a proprietary colony. Its House of Assembly began meeting in 1639. Among the island's earliest leading figures was the Anglo-Dutch Sir William Courten.
The 1780 hurricane killed over 4,000 people on Barbados. In 1854, a cholera epidemic killed over 20,000 inhabitants.〔"(Barbados )". Library of Congress Country Studies.〕 At emancipation in 1833, the size of the slave population was approximately 83,000. Between 1946 and 1980, Barbados' rate of population growth was diminished by one-third because of emigration to Britain.〔"(Barbados – population )". Library of Congress Country Studies.〕

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)

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