Words near each other
・ Ancillista albicans
・ Ancillista aureocallosa
・ Ancillista cingulata
・ Ancillista depontesi
・ Ancillista fernandesi
・ Ancillista hasta
・ Ancillista muscae
・ Ancillista ngampitchae
・ Ancillista rosadoi
・ Ancient Roman bathing
・ Ancient Roman cuisine
・ Ancient Roman military clothing
・ Ancient Roman pottery
・ Ancient Roman sarcophagi
・ Ancient Roman units of measurement
Ancient Rome
・ Ancient Rome (disambiguation)
・ Ancient Rome (painting)
・ Ancient Rome and wine
・ Ancient Ruins and Archaeology
・ Ancient Ruler Dinosaur King DKidz Adventure
・ Ancient Scheduled Monuments and Listed buildings in Exeter
・ Ancient Secrets
・ Ancient See of Aarhus
・ Ancient See of Børglum
・ Ancient Semitic religion
・ Ancient settlements in Turkey
・ Ancient shipbuilding techniques
・ Ancient Shores
・ Ancient Siam

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

Ancient Rome : ウィキペディア英語版
Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world〔Chris Scarre, ''The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome'' (London: Penguin Books, 1995).〕 with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population〔McEvedy and Jones (1978).〕〔See estimates of world population in antiquity.〕〔an average of figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's (Historical Estimates of World Population ); see also
*Kremer, Michael (1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990" in ''The Quarterly Journal of Economics'' 108(3): 681–716.〕) and covering 6.5 million square kilometers (2.5 million sq mi) during its height between the first and second centuries AD.〔There are several different estimates for the Roman Empire. Scheidel (2006, p. 2) estimates 60. Goldsmith (1984, p. 263) estimates 55. Beloch (1886, p. 507) estimates 54. Maddison (2006, p. 51, 120) estimates 48. (Roman Empire Population ) estimates 65 (while mentioning several other estimates between 55 and 120).〕〔Mclynn Frank "Marcus Aurelius" p. 4. Published by The Bodley Head 2009〕
In its approximately 12 centuries of existence, Roman civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate Southern and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa, and parts of Northern and Eastern Europe. Rome was preponderant throughout the Mediterranean region and was one of the most powerful entities of the ancient world. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.
Ancient Roman society has contributed to modern government, law, politics, engineering, art, literature, architecture, technology, warfare, religion, language and society. A civilization highly developed for its time, Rome professionalized and expanded its military and created a system of government called ''res publica'', the inspiration for modern republics〔A critical dictionary of the French Revolution By François Furet, Mona Ozouf. Pg 793.〕〔Democratization in the South: the jagged wave By Robin Luckham, Gordon White. Pg 11.〕〔American republicanism: Roman ideology in the United States Constitution By Mortimer N. S. Sellers. Pg. 90.〕 such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.
By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged under the leadership of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a common ritual for a new emperor's rise.〔The greatness and decline of Rome, Volume 2 By Guglielmo Ferrero, Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern, Henry John Chaytor. Pg. 215+.〕〔Shakespeare and republicanism By Andrew Hadfield. Pg. 68.〕〔The philosophy of law: an encyclopedia, Volume 1 By Christopher B. Gray. Pg. 741.〕 Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire in the crisis of the 3rd century.
Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
==Founding myth==
(詳細はfounding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC by twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas〔Adkins, 1998. page 3.〕 and who were grandsons of the Latin King, Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, Amulius, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins.〔(The Founding of Rome ). Retrieved 8 March 2007.〕〔Livy, 1998. page 8.〕 Because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine.
The new king feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned.〔 A she-wolf (or a shepherd's wife in some accounts) saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.〔Durant, 1944. Pages 12–14.〕〔Livy, 1998. pages 9–10.〕
The twins then founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about who was going to rule or give his name to the city.〔Roggen, Hesse, Haastrup, Omnibus I, H. Aschehoug & Co 1996〕 Romulus became the source of the city's name.〔Livy, 1998. pages 10–11.〕 In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent, exiled, and unwanted. This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women. Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins and the Sabines.〔(Myths and Legends- Rome, the Wolf, and Mars ). Retrieved 8 March 2007.〕
Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed in the outcome of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave. One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they soon realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships.〔Mellor, Ronald and McGee Marni, ''The Ancient Roman World'' p. 15 (Cited 15 March 2009)〕
The Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the ''Aeneid''. In the ''Aeneid'', the Trojan prince Aeneas is destined by the gods in his enterprise of founding a new Troy. In the epic, the women also refused to go back to the sea, but they were not left on the Tiber. After reaching Italy, Aeneas, who wanted to marry Lavinia, was forced to wage war with her former suitor, Turnus. According to the poem, the Alban kings were descended from Aeneas, and thus Romulus, the founder of Rome, was his descendant.

ImageSize = width:800 height:85
PlotArea = width:720 height:55 left:65 bottom:20
AlignBars = justify
Colors =
id:time value:rgb(0.7,0.7,1) #
id:period value:rgb(1,0.7,0.5) #
id:age value:rgb(0.95,0.85,0.5) #
id:era value:rgb(1,0.85,0.5) #
id:eon value:rgb(1,0.85,0.7) #
id:filler value:gray(0.8) # background bar
id:black value:black
Period = from:-753 till:1455
TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal
ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:-753
ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:-753
PlotData =
align:center textcolor:black fontsize:8 mark:(line,black) width:11 shift:(0,-5)
bar:Roman color:era
from:-753 till:-508 text:Kingdom
from:-508 till:-27 text:Republic
from:-27 till:1453 text:Empire
bar:States color:era
from:285 till:476 text:Western Empire
bar:  color:era
from:324 till:1453 text:Eastern Empire

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
ウィキペディアで「Ancient Rome」の詳細全文を読む

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.