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35mm film : ウィキペディア英語版
35 mm film

35 mm film is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film). The name of the gauge refers to the width of the photographic film, which consists of strips 34.98 ±0.03 mm (1.377 ±0.001 inches) wide.〔1.377 ±0.001 inches (34.98 ±0.03 mm) is the actual dimension specified by SMPTE. Initially, the size was created by Dickson as 1-⅜" in collaboration with Eastman, and was in standard, not metric, units. Dickson slit standard 120 size Kodak film down the middle and perforated the resultant strip of film, only 0.075 mm narrower than the 35 mm standard that has existed since 1930 . An account of this is given in an article by Dickson in the December, 1933 SMPTE Journal cited above. This size was also exactly half the width of the 2-¾ inch-wide (69.85 mm) "A-type" 120 and 620 rollfilm which was the standard Eastman size at the time. The standard size was increased at the May 1929 meeting of the SMPE and published in 1930. ("Half Frame Cameras" ). Retrieved August 12, 2006. ("Enhancing the Illusion: The Process and Origins of Photography" ), George Eastman House. Retrieved August 12, 2006. 〕〔ANSI/SMPTE 139–1996. ''SMPTE STANDARD for Motion-Picture Film (35 mm) - Perforated KS.'' Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. White Plains, NY.〕 The standard negative pulldown for movies ("single-frame" format) is four perforations per frame along both edges, which results in 16 frames per foot of film.〔Hummel, Rob (ed). ''American Cinematographer Manual'', 8th edition. ASC Press: Hollywood, 2001.〕 For still photography, the standard frame has eight perforations on each side.
A variety of largely proprietary gauges were devised for the numerous camera and projection systems being developed independently in the late 19th century and early 20th century, ranging from 13 mm to 75 mm (0.51–2.95 in),〔Horak, Jan-Christopher. UCLA Film and Television Archive, ("Introduction to Film Gauges" ). Retrieved May 18, 2012.〕 as well as a variety of film feeding systems. This resulted in cameras, projectors, and other equipment having to be calibrated to each gauge. The 35 mm width, originally specified as 1.375 inches, was introduced in 1892 by William Dickson and Thomas Edison, using film stock supplied by George Eastman.〔 Film 35 mm wide with four perforations per frame became accepted as the international standard gauge in 1909,〔Alsobrook, Russ T. International Cinematographers Guild, (took_machines1.htm "Machines That Made the Movies, Part 1" ). Retrieved August 11, 2006.〕 and remained by far the dominant film gauge for image origination and projection until the advent of digital photography and cinematography, despite challenges from smaller and larger gauges, because its size allowed for a relatively good trade-off between the cost of the film stock and the quality of the images captured.
The gauge has been versatile in application. It has been modified to include sound, redesigned to create a safer film base, formulated to capture color, has accommodated a bevy of widescreen formats, and has incorporated digital sound data into nearly all of its non-frame areas. Eastman Kodak, Fujifilm and Agfa-Gevaert are some companies which offered 35 mm films.
The ubiquity of 35 mm movie projectors in commercial movie theaters made it the only motion picture format, film or video, that could be played in almost any cinema in the world until digital cinematography largely superseded it at the start of the 21st century.
== Early history ==
(詳細はgelatin dry photographic plates in Rochester, New York. Along with W. H. Walker, Eastman invented a holder for a roll of picture-carrying gelatin layer coated paper. Hannibal Goodwin's invention of nitrocellulose film base in 1887 was the first transparent, flexible film.〔(''The Wizard of Photography: The Story of George Eastman and How He Transformed Photography'' Timeline ) PBS American Experience Online. Retrieved July 5, 2006.〕 Eastman's was the first major company, however, to mass-produce these components, when in 1889 Eastman realized that the dry-gelatino-bromide emulsion could be coated onto this clear base, eliminating the paper.〔Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1961). ''From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film: A Story of Photographic Research''. Ziff-Davis Publishing. pp. 15–16.〕
With the advent of flexible film, Thomas Alva Edison quickly set out on his invention, the Kinetoscope, which was first shown at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on 9 May 1893. The Kinetoscope was a film loop system intended for one-person viewing. Edison, along with assistant W. K. L. Dickson, followed that up with the Kinetophone, which combined the Kinetoscope with Edison's cylinder phonograph. Beginning in March 1892, Eastman and then, from April 1893 into 1896, New York's Blair Camera Co. supplied Edison with film stock. At first Blair would supply only 40 mm (1-9/16 in) film stock that would be trimmed and perforated at the Edison lab to create 1-⅜ inch (34.925 mm) gauge filmstrips, then at some point in 1894 or 1895, Blair began sending stock to Edison that was cut exactly to specification.〔 Edison's aperture defined a single frame of film at 4 perforations high. Edison claimed exclusive patent rights to his design of 35 mm motion picture film, with four sprocket holes per frame, forcing his only major filmmaking competitor, American Mutoscope & Biograph, to use a 68 mm film that used friction feed, not sprocket holes, to move the film through the camera. A court judgment in March 1902 invalidated Edison's claim, allowing any producer or distributor to use the Edison 35 mm film design without license. Filmmakers were already doing so in Britain and Europe, where Edison had failed to file patents.
At the time, film stock was usually supplied unperforated and punched by the filmmaker to their standards with perforation equipment. A variation developed by the Lumière Brothers which used a single circular perforation on each side of the frame towards the middle of the horizontal axis.〔Lobban, Grant. "Film Gauges and Soundtracks", BKSTS wall chart (sample frame provided). (unknown )〕 It was Edison's format, however, that became first the dominant standard and then the "official" standard of the newly formed Motion Picture Patents Company, a trust established by Edison, which agreed in 1909 to what would become the standard: 35 mm gauge, with Edison perforations and a 1.3 aspect ratio.〔The gauge and perforations are almost identical to modern film stock; the full silent ratio is also used as the film gate in movie cameras, although portions of the image are later cropped out in post-production and projection.〕 Scholar Paul C. Spehr describes the importance of these developments:
The film format was introduced into still photography as early as 1913 (the Tourist Multiple) but first became popular with the launch of the Leica camera, created by Oskar Barnack in 1925.〔Scheerer, Theo M. (1960). ''The Leica and the Leica System'' (3rd ed). Umschau Verlag Frankfurt Am Main. pp. 7–8.〕

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