| turbocharger ： ウィキペディア英語版|
A turbocharger, or turbo (colloquialism), from Greek "τύρβη" ("wake"),〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=τύρβη - Λεξιλόγιο - Γεώργιος Μπαμπινιώτης )〕 (also from Latin "turbo" ("spinning top"),〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Turbo - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary )〕) is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.〔() 〕 This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's output results because the turbine can force more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.
Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Nowadays the term "supercharger" is usually applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine, often through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger.
Turbochargers are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction equipment engines. They are most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells.
Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=History of the Supercharger )〕 The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi (1879-1959), the head of Diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer engine manufacturing company in Winterthur,〔Porsche Turbo: The Full History. Peter Vann. MotorBooks International, 11 July 2004〕 who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition.〔Compressor Performance: Aerodynamics for the User. M. Theodore Gresh. Newnes, 29 March 2001〕〔Diesel and gas turbine progress, Volume 26. Diesel Engines, 1960〕 During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 ''Liberty'' aircraft engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude.〔 General Electric called the system turbosupercharging. At the time, all forced induction devices were known as superchargers. However, more recently the term "supercharger" is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction devices.
Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were also used in aviation, most widely used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U.S. aircraft with turbochargers include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, and P-47 Thunderbolt. The technology was also used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of Focke-Wulf Fw 190 models, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine kept them out of widespread use.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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