A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability. The term most commonly refers to a large, crewed, autonomous vessel. It is also sometimes used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Used as an adjective in phrases such as ''submarine cable'', "submarine" means "under the sea". The noun ''submarine'' evolved as a shortened form of ''submarine boat'' (and is often further shortened to ''sub'').〔The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993, Vol. 2 N-Z〕 For reasons of naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size.
Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, and they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first widely used during World War I (1914–1918), and now figure in many navies large and small. Military usage includes attacking enemy surface ships (merchant and military), submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, reconnaissance, conventional land attack (for example using a cruise missile), and covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage, exploration and facility inspection/maintenance. Submarines can also be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are also used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical (and/or conical) ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage, and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller (or pump jet) at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines change the amount of water and air in their ballast tanks to decrease buoyancy for submerging or increase it for surfacing.
Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. They range from small autonomous examples and one or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian , the biggest submarines ever built. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Worlds Biggest Submarine )〕 Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell.
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