Ṣalāh ("Muslim prayer", (アラビア語:صلاة) ' or : '; pl. ') is one of the Five Pillars of the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical, mental and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates, and concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers. The word salah is commonly translated to prayer but this definition might be confusing. Muslims use the words "Dua" or "Supplication" when referring to the common definition of prayers which is "reverent petitions made to God."
Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a ''rakʿah'' (pl. ''rakaʿāt'') consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (''fard'') ''rakaʿāt'' varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.〔''Multicultural Handbook of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics'', p. 43, Aruna Thaker, Arlene Barton, 2012〕
Salah ''(ṣalāh)'' is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "bowing, homage, worship, prayer." In its English usage, the reference of the word is almost always confined to the Muslim formal, obligatory worship described in this article.
Translating ''salah'' as "prayer" is not usually considered precise enough, as "prayer" can indicate several different ways of relating to God; personal prayer or supplication is called duʿāʾ (Arabic: دُعَاء, literally "invocation") in Islamic usage.
Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to ''salah'' depending on their language or culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries such as Indonesia, the Arabic term ''salat'' or ''salah'' is used. The other major term is the Persian word ''namāz'' (), used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages (e.g., Kurdish, Urdu, Hindi), as well as Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Bosnian and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is ''lamaz'' () in Chechen, ''chak'' () in Lak and ''kak'' in Avar ().
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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