A road train, roadtrain or land train is a method of trucking used in remote areas of Argentina, Australia, Mexico, the United States, and Canada to move freight efficiently. The term, ''road train'', is most often used in Australia. In the United States, the terms, ''triples'', ''turnpike doubles'', and ''Rocky Mountain doubles'' are commonly used for longer combination vehicles (LCVs).〔(States that Allow Longer Combination Vehicles )〕 A road train consists of a relatively conventional tractor unit, but instead of towing one trailer or semi-trailer, a road train pulls two or more of them.
== History ==
Early road trains consisted of traction engines pulling multiple wagons. The first identified road trains operated into South Australia's Flinders Ranges from the Port Augusta area in the mid nineteenth century, according to Basil Fuller in his book, "The Ghan". They displaced bullock teams for the carriage of minerals to port and were, in turn, superseded by railways.
During the Crimean War a traction engine was used to pull multiple open trucks. By 1898 steam traction engine trains with up to four wagons were employed in military manoeuvres in England.
In 1900, John Fowler & Co. provided armoured road trains for use by the British forces in the Second Boer War.〔 Lord Kitchener stated that he had around 45 steam road trains at his disposal.
There is an earlier road train built by its inventor in the United Kingdom. It is shown in the No. 320 (No. 8. Vol. 12, February 23, 1907) edition of "The Auto" Title: The Renard Road Train, page 242.〔http://books.google.com/books?id=fm4nAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PA243&ots=jPSyNNkHmS&dq=1907%20%22the%20auto%22%20road%20train&pg=PA242#v=onepage&q=1907%20%22the%20auto%22%20road%20train&f=false〕
In the 1930/40s, the government of South Australia operated an AEC 8×8 military truck to transport freight and supplies into the Northern Territory, replacing the Afghan camel trains that had been trekking through the deserts since the late 19th century. This truck pulled two or three Dyson four-axle self-tracking trailers. With , the AEC was grossly underpowered by today's standards, and drivers and offsiders routinely froze in winter and sweltered in summer due to the truck's open cab design and the position of the engine radiator, with its cooling fan, behind the seats.
Australian Kurt Johansson is recognised as the inventor of the modern road train.〔(View From The North - Episode Four: Roads North )〕 After transporting stud bulls to an outback property, Johansson was challenged to build a truck to carry 100 head of cattle instead of the original load of 20. Provided with financing of a couple of thousand pounds and inspired by the tracking abilities of the Government roadtrain, Johansson began construction. Two years later his first road train was running.〔BBC Worldwide Limited, Jeremy Clarkson's Motorworld, Australian episode〕
Johansson's first road train consisted of a U.S. Army World War II surplus Diamond-T tank carrier, nicknamed "Bertha", and two home-built self-tracking trailers. Both wheel sets on each trailer could steer, and therefore could negotiate the tight and narrow tracks and creek crossings that existed throughout Central Australia in the earlier part of last century. Freighter Trailers in Australia viewed this improved invention and went on to build self-tracking trailers for Kurt and other customers, and went on to become innovators in transport machinery for Australia.
This first example of the modern road train, along with the AEC Government Roadtrain, forms part of the huge collection at the National Road Transport Hall of Fame in Alice Springs, Northern Territory.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』