A professor, informally often known as full professor, is the highest academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Literally, ''professor'' derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In some countries, the ''word'' professor is also used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor.
Professors conduct original research and commonly teach undergraduate, graduate, and/or professional courses in their field of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students who are conducting research for a thesis or dissertation. Professors typically hold a Ph.D., another doctorate or a different terminal degree. Some professors hold a master's degree or a professional degree such as an MD as their highest degree.
A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title ''professor'' is reserved only for the highest academic rank at a university. In the United States and Canada, the title of ''professor'' is granted to a larger percentage, about a quarter, of scholars with doctorate degrees (typically Ph.D. degrees) or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities, and is used in the titles ''assistant professor'' and ''associate professor'', which are not considered professor-level positions in many other countries, as well as for full professors.
In Australia, the title ''associate professor'' is used in place of ''reader'', ranking above senior lecturer and below full professor, and being of comparable rank to full professors in North America.〔http://www.eui.eu/ProgrammesAndFellowships/AcademicCareersObservatory/AcademicCareersbyCountry/Australia.aspx〕
Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries also give notable artists, athletes and foreign dignitaries the title ''honorary professor'', even if these persons do not have the academic qualifications typically necessary for professorship. However, such "professors" usually do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is strictly used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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