Professional development encompasses all types of facilitated learning opportunities including credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, conferences and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.〔
Speck, M. & Knipe, C. (2005) ''Why can't we get it right? Designing high-quality professional development for standards-based schools''(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press
〕 There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance.〔
National Professional Development Center on Inclusion. (2008). ("What do we mean by professional development in the early childhood field?" ). Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute, Author.
== History ==
The Uniersity of Management and Technology notes the use of the phrase "professional development" from 1857 onwards.
In the training of school staff in the United States, "()he need for professional development () came to the forefront in the 1960's".〔
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』