A pollen tube is part of the male gametophyte of seed plants. It acts as a conduit to transport the male gamete cells from the pollen grain, either from the stigma (in flowering plants) to the ovules at the base of the pistil, or directly through ovule tissue in some gymnosperms. In maize, this single cell can grow longer than 12 inches to traverse the length of the pistil.
Pollen tubes were first discovered by Giovanni Battista Amici.
==The pollen tube in Angiosperms==
Angiosperm reproduction is a complex process that includes several steps that may vary among species.〔 Each step is a vast procedure in its own right. Pollen is produced by the stamen, the male reproductive organ of the flower. Each pollen grain contains a vegetative cell, and a generative cell that divides to form two sperm cells. The pollen is delivered by the opening of anthers for subsequent pollination, that is, for the transfer of pollen grains to the pistil, the female reproductive organ. Pollination is usually carried out by wind, water or insects. The ovaries hold the ovules that produce the female gamete: the egg cell, which waits in place for fertilization.
Once a pollen grain settles on a compatible pistil, it germinates in response to a sugary fluid secreted by the mature stigma. Lipids at the surface of the stigma stimulate pollen tube growth for compatible pollen. Plants that are self-sterile inhibit the pollen grains from their own flowers from growing pollen tubes. The presence of multiple grains of pollen has been observed to stimulate quicker pollen tube growth in some plants. The vegetative cell then produces the pollen tube, a tubular protrusion from the pollen grain, which carries the sperm cells within its cytoplasm. The sperm cells are the male gametes that will join with the egg cell and the central cell in double fertilization.
The germinated pollen tube must then drill its way through the nutrient-rich style and curl to the bottom of the ovary to reach the ovule. Once the pollen tube successfully attains an ovule, it delivers the two sperm cells with a burst. One of them fertilizes the egg cell to form an embryo, which will become the future plant. The other one fuses with both polar nuclei of the central cell to form the endosperm, which serves as the embryo's food supply. Finally, the ovary will develop into a fruit and the ovules will develop into seeds.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
| 翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース|
Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.