Paper wasps are long wasps that gather fibers from dead wood and plant stems, which they mix with saliva, and use to construct water-resistant nests made of gray or brown papery material. Paper wasps are also sometimes called umbrella wasps, due to the distinctive design of their nests.〔("Paper Wasp" ) Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006.〕
== Species ==
The name "paper wasps" typically refers to members of the vespid subfamily Polistinae, though it often colloquially includes members of the subfamilies Vespinae (hornets and yellowjackets) and Stenogastrinae, which also make nests out of paper. Twenty-two species of ''Polistes'' paper wasps have been identified in North America and approximately 300 species have been identified worldwide. The most common paper wasp in Europe is ''Polistes dominula''.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Distributional checklist of the species of the genus ''Polistes'' (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Polistinae, Polistini) )〕 The Old World tribe Ropalidiini contains another 300 species, and the neotropical tribes Epiponini and Mischocyttarini each contain over 250 more, so the total number of true paper wasps worldwide is about 1100 species, almost half of which can be found in the neotropics.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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