| literal translation ： ウィキペディア英語版|
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "''verbum pro verbo''") with or without conveying the ''sense'' of the original whole.
In translation studies, "literal translation" denotes technical translation of scientific, technical, technological or legal texts.〔Olive Classe, ''(Encyclopedia of literary translation into English )'', vol. 1, Taylor & Francis, 2000, ISBN 1-884964-36-2, p. viii.〕
In translation theory, another term for "literal translation" is "metaphrase"; and for phrasal ("sense") translation — "paraphrase."
When considered a bad practice of conveying word by word (lexeme to lexeme, or morpheme to lexeme) translation of non-technical type literal translations has the meaning of mistranslating idioms,〔John Hutchins, ("The whisky was invisible", or Persistent myths of MT ), MT News International 11 (June 1995), pp. 17-18.〕 for example, or in the context of translating an analytic language to a synthetic language, it renders even the grammar unintelligible.
The concept of ''literal translation'' may be viewed as an oxymoron (contradiction in terms), given that ''literal'' denotes something existing without interpretation, whereas a ''translation'', by its very nature, is an interpretation (an interpretation of the meaning of words from one language into another).
== The term as used in translation studies ==
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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