| lingua franca ： ウィキペディア英語版|
A ''lingua franca'' , also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect ''systematically'' (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.〔Viacheslav A. Chirikba, "The problem of the Caucasian Sprachbund" in Pieter Muysken, ed., ''From Linguistic Areas to Areal Linguistics'', 2008, p. 31. ISBN 90-272-3100-1〕
''Lingua francas'' have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons (so-called "trade languages") but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca.
''Lingua franca'' is a term defined functionally, independent of the linguistic history or structure of the language:〔(Intro Sociolinguistics ) - ''Pidgin and Creole Languages: Origins and Relationships'' - Notes for LG102, - University of Essex, Prof. Peter L. Patrick - Week 11, Autumn term.〕 though pidgins and creoles often function as lingua francas, many such languages are neither pidgins nor creoles.
Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a community, a ''lingua franca'' is used beyond the boundaries of its original community, and is used as a second language for communication between groups. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom, but is used as a vehicular language (i.e., a ''lingua franca'') in the Philippine Islands and India.
International auxiliary languages such as Esperanto have not had a great degree of adoption globally, so they cannot be described as global ''lingua francas''.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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