A Linebacker (LB or Backer) is a playing position in American football and Canadian football. Linebackers are members of the defensive team, and line up approximately three to five yards (4 m) behind the line of scrimmage, behind the defensive linemen, and therefore "back up the line." Linebackers generally align themselves before the ball is snapped by standing upright in a "two point stance" (as opposed to the defensive linemen, who put one or two hands on the ground for a "three point stance" or "four point stance" before the ball is snapped). The goal of the linebacker is to provide either extra run protection or extra pass protection based on the particular defensive play being executed. Another key play of the linebacker position is blitzing. A blitz occurs when a linebacker acts as an extra pass rusher running into any exposed gap. When a blitz is called on the defense, it is mainly to sack or hurry the opposing offense's quarterback.
Before the advent of the two platoon system with separate units for offense and defense, the player who was the team's center on offense was often, though not always, the team's linebacker on defense. Hence today one usually sees four defensive linemen to the offense's five or more. Most sources claim coach Fielding H. Yost and center Germany Schulz of the University of Michigan invented the position.〔''Big Ten Football, Its Life and Times, Great Coaches, Players, and Games'', page 193, Mervin D. Hyman, Gordon S. White, Macmillan, 1977, ISBN 0-02-558070-1.〕〔 〕〔 〕〔Dave Lewis, "Once Over Lightly," The Long Beach Independent, July 29, 1954.〕 Schulz was Yost's first linebacker in 1904 when he stood up from his usual position on the line. Yost was horrified at first, but came to see the wisdom in Schulz's innovation.〔Malcolm Bingay, "A Little About This and That: How Schulz Entered Michigan Still A Mystery," The Morning Herald, May 1, 1951; ; "Frankly Speaking: Schulz' Great Grid Exploits Reviewed," The Long Beach Press-Telegram, April 17, 1951.〕 William Dunn of Penn St. was another Western linebacker soon after Schulz.
However, there are various historical claims tied to the linebacker position, including some before 1904. For example, Percy Given of Georgetown is another center with a claim to the title "first linebacker," supposedly standing up behind the line well before Schulz in a game against Navy in 1902. Despite Given, most sources have the first linebacker in the South as Frank Juhan of Sewanee. In the East, Ernest Cozens of Penn was "one of the first of the roving centers," another, archaic term for the position, supposedly coined by Hank Ketcham of Yale.〔(【引用サイトリンク】publisher=College Football Hall of Fame )〕 Walter E. Bachman of Lafayette was said to be "the developer of the "roving center" concept." Edgar Garbisch of Army was credited with developing the "roving center method" of playing defensive football in 1921.
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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