Jewellery or jewelry〔see American and British spelling differences〕 () consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, and the term is restricted to durable ornaments, excluding flowers for example. For many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100,000-year-old beads made from ''Nassarius'' shells thought to be the oldest known jewellery.〔(Study reveals 'oldest jewellery' ), BBC News, June 22, 2006.〕 The basic forms of jewellery vary between cultures but are often extremely long-lived; in European cultures the most common forms of jewellery listed above have persisted since ancient times, while other forms such as adornments for the nose or ankle, important in other cultures, are much less common. Historically, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia.
Jewellery may be made from a wide range of materials. Gemstones and similar materials such as amber and coral, precious metals, beads, and shells have been widely used, and enamel has often been important. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a status symbol, for its material properties, its patterns, or for meaningful symbols. Jewellery has been made to adorn nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings, and even genital jewellery. The patterns of wearing jewellery between the sexes, and by children and older people can vary greatly between cultures, but adult women have been the most consistent wearers of jewellery; in modern European culture the amount worn by adult males is relatively low compared with other cultures and other periods in European culture.
The word ''jewellery'' itself is derived from the word ''jewel'', which was anglicized from the Old French "''jouel''",〔(jewel. (n.d.). ) Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved on August 7, 2007, from the Dictionary.com website.〕 and beyond that, to the Latin word "''jocale''", meaning plaything. In British English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, and South African English it is spelled ''jewellery,'' while the spelling is ''jewelry'' in American English.〔 Both are used in Canadian English, though ''jewelry'' prevails by a two to one margin. In French and a few other European languages the equivalent term, ''joaillerie'' there, may also cover decorated metalwork in precious metal such as ''objets d'art'' and church items, not just objects worn on the person.
==Form and function==
Humans have used jewellery for a number of different reasons:
* functional, generally to fix clothing or hair in place, or to tell the time (in the case of watches)
* as a marker of social status and personal status, as with a wedding ring
* as a signifier of some form of affiliation, whether ethnic, religious or social
* to provide talismanic protection (in the form of amulets)〔 URL: (Magic Of jewels: Chapter VII Amulets ) George Frederick Kunz was gemmologist for Tiffany's built the collections of banker J.P. Morgan and the American Natural History Museum in NY City. This chapter deals entirely with using jewels and gemstones in jewellery for talismanic purposes in Western Cultures. The next chapter deals with other, indigenous cultures.〕
* as an artistic display
* as a carrier or symbol of personal meaning – such as love, mourning, or even luck
Most cultures at some point have had a practice of keeping large amounts of wealth stored in the form of jewellery. Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins. Alternatively, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good; an example being the use of slave beads.
Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as purely functional items, but evolved into decorative items as their functional requirement diminished.〔Holland, J. 1999. The Kingfisher History Encyclopedia. ''Kingfisher books''.〕
Jewellery can also symbolise group membership (as in the case, of the Christian crucifix or the Jewish Star of David) or status (as in the case of chains of office, or the Western practice of married people wearing wedding rings).
Wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols (such as the ankh), stones, plants, animals, body parts (such as the Khamsa), or glyphs (such as stylised versions of the Throne Verse in Islamic art).〔
Morris, Desmond. ''Body Guards: Protective Amulets and Charms''. Element, 1999, ISBN 1-86204-572-0.〕
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