''In silico'' (literally Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases ''in vivo'', ''in vitro'', and ''in situ'', which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside of living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
==Drug discovery with virtual screening==
(詳細はProtein-ligand docking), researchers found potential inhibitors to an enzyme associated with cancer activity ''in silico''. Fifty percent of the molecules were later shown to be active inhibitors ''in vitro''.〔Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (2010, February 4). New computational tool for cancer treatment. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 12, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100129151756.htm〕 This approach differs from use of expensive high-throughput screening (HTS) robotic labs to physically test thousands of diverse compounds a day often with an expected hit rate on the order of 1% or less with still fewer expected to be real leads following further testing (see drug discovery).
抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア（Wikipedia）』
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