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heavy metal music : ウィキペディア英語版
heavy metal music

Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music〔Du Noyer (2003), p. 96; Weinstein (2000), pp. 11–13.〕 that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.〔Weinstein (2000), pp. 14, 118.〕 With roots in blues rock and psychedelic rock,〔 the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. Heavy metal lyrics and performance styles are often associated with masculinity, aggression, and machismo.〔Fast (2005), pp. 89–91; Weinstein (2000), pp. 7, 8, 23, 36, 103, 104.〕
The first heavy metal bands such as Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple attracted large audiences, though they were often derided by critics, a status common throughout the history of the genre. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence;〔Walser (1993), p. 6.〕〔"As much as Sabbath started it, Priest were the ones who took it out of the blues and straight into metal." Bowe, Brian J. ''Judas Priest: Metal Gods''. ISBN 0-7660-3621-9.〕 Motörhead introduced a punk rock sensibility and an increasing emphasis on speed. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the New Wave of British Heavy Metal such as Iron Maiden and Saxon followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers".
During the 1980s, glam metal became a commercial force with groups such as Mötley Crüe and Poison. Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Megadeth, Slayer, and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre. These include groove metal (with bands such as Pantera) and nu metal (with bands such as Slipknot, Korn and Linkin Park), the latter of which often incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop.
Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, and vigorous vocals. Metal subgenres variously emphasize, alter, or omit one or more of these attributes. ''New York Times'' critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force."〔Pareles, Jon. ("Heavy Metal, Weighty Words" ) ''The New York Times'', July 10, 1988. Retrieved on November 14, 2007.〕 The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, and a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist. Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound.〔Weinstein (2000), p. 25〕
The electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has historically been the key element in heavy metal.〔Weinstein (2000), p. 23〕 The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of high volumes and heavy distortion.〔Walser, Robert (1993). ''Running with the Devil: Power, Gender, and Madness in Heavy Metal Music.'' Wesleyan University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-8195-6260-2.〕 Guitar solos are "...an essential element of the heavy metal code...that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre.〔Weinstein, p. 24〕 Most heavy metal songs "...featur() at least one guitar solo",〔Walser, p. 50〕 which is "...a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity." One exception is nu metal bands, which tend to omit guitar solos. With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal...(created by ) palm muting" the strings with the right hand and using distortion.〔("Lesson four- Power chords" ). Marshall Amps.〕 Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end.〔''Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity''. By Glenn Pillsbury. Routledge, 2013

The lead role of the guitar in heavy metal often collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry".〔 Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity.〔Weinstein (2000), p. 26〕 Critic Simon Frith claims that the metal singer's "tone of voice" is more important than the lyrics.〔Cited in Weinstein (2000), p. 26〕
The prominent role of the bass is also key to the metal sound, and the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy".〔Weinstein (2000), p. 24〕 The bass plays a "...more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock."〔Weinstein (2009), p. 24〕 Metal basslines vary widely in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead and/or rhythm guitars. Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s.〔("Cliff Burton's Legendary Career: The King of Metal Bass" ). ''Bass Player'', February 2005. Retrieved on November 13, 2007.〕
The essence of metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed, power, and precision".〔Dawson, Michael. ("Chris Adler: More than Meets the Eye" ). ''Modern Drummer Online''. Retrieved on November 13, 2007.〕 Metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", and drummers have to develop "considerable speed, coordination, and dexterity...to play the intricate patterns" used in metal.〔Berry and Gianni (2003), p. 85〕 A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and then immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand (or, in some cases, the same striking hand), producing a burst of sound. The metal drum setup is generally much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music.〔 Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "...all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats."
In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound," in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.〔 In his book ''Metalheads'', psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy metal concerts as "the sensory equivalent of war."〔Arnett (1996), p. 14〕 Following the lead set by Jimi Hendrix, Cream and The Who, early heavy metal acts such as Blue Cheer set new benchmarks for volume. As Blue Cheer's Dick Peterson put it, "All we knew was we wanted more power."〔Walser (1993), p. 9〕 A 1977 review of a Motörhead concert noted how "excessive volume in particular figured into the band's impact."〔Paul Sutcliffe quoted in Waksman, Steve. ("Metal, Punk, and Motörhead: Generic Crossover in the Heart of the Punk Explosion" ). ''Echo: A Music-Centered Journal'' 6.2 (Fall 2004). Retrieved on November 15, 2007.〕 Weinstein makes the case that in the same way that melody is the main element of pop and rhythm is the main focus of house music, powerful sound, timbre, and volume are the key elements of metal. She argues that the loudness is designed to "sweep the listener into the sound" and to provide a "shot of youthful vitality."〔
In relation to the gender composition of heavy metal bands, it has been said that "()eavy metal performers are almost exclusively male" "...()t least until the mid-1980s" apart from "...exceptions such as Girlschool."〔 However, "...now (the 2010s ) maybe more than ever–strong metal women have put up their dukes and got down to it","carv() out a considerable place for ()selves."

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