Words near each other
・ "O" Is for Outlaw
・ "O"-Jung.Ban.Hap.
・ "Ode-to-Napoleon" hexachord
・ "Oh Yeah!" Live
・ "Our Contemporary" regional art exhibition (Leningrad, 1975)
・ "P" Is for Peril
・ "Pimpernel" Smith
・ "Polish death camp" controversy
・ "Pro knigi" ("About books")
・ "Prosopa" Greek Television Awards
・ "Pussy Cats" Starring the Walkmen
・ "Q" Is for Quarry
・ "R" Is for Ricochet
・ "R" The King (2016 film)
・ "Rags" Ragland
・ ! (album)
・ ! (disambiguation)
・ !!
・ !!!
・ !!! (album)
・ !!Destroy-Oh-Boy!!
・ !Action Pact!
・ !Arriba! La Pachanga
・ !Hero
・ !Hero (album)
・ !Kung language
・ !Oka Tokat
・ !PAUS3
・ !T.O.O.H.!
・ !Women Art Revolution

Dictionary Lists
翻訳と辞書 辞書検索 [ 開発暫定版 ]
スポンサード リンク

field hockey : ウィキペディア英語版
field hockey

Field hockey, or simply hockey, is a team sport of the hockey family. The earliest origins of the sport date back to the Middle Ages in England, Scotland and the Netherlands.〔http://fieldhockey.isport.com/fieldhockey-guides/history-of-field-hockey〕 The game can be played on a grass field or a turf field as well as an indoor board surface. Each team plays with eleven players including the goalie. Players use sticks made out of wood or fiber glass to hit a round, hard, rubber like ball. The length of the stick depends on the player's individual height.〔http://www.longstreth.com/How-to-Choose-a-Stick/products/1951/〕 There are no left hand sticks in field hockey, but only one side of the stick is allowed to be used. Goalies have a different kind of stick. Theirs has another curve on the end of the stick. The uniform consists of shin-guards, cleats, skirts (usually referred to as kilts) or shorts, a mouth guard and a jersey. At the turn of the 21st century, the game is played globally, with particular popularity throughout western Europe, the Indian subcontinent, and Australasia as well as the American South and Northeast (such as Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania) as well as Southern Africa. Hockey is the national sport of Pakistan, and is sometimes assumed to be India's national sport as well, although officially India does not have a national sport.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://sports.ndtv.com/othersports/hockey/194578-hockey-is-not-indias-national-game-sports-ministry )〕 The term "field hockey" is used primarily in Canada and the United States where ice hockey is more popular.
During play, goal keepers are the only players who are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their body (the player's hand is considered 'part of the stick'), with this only applying within the ''shooting circle'' (also known as the ''D'', or ''shooting arc'', or just the circle), while field players play the ball with the flat side of their stick. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the competition's format.
The governing body of hockey is the International Hockey Federation (IHF), with men and women being represented internationally in competitions including the Olympic Games, World Cup, World League, Champions Trophy and Junior World Cup, with many countries running extensive junior, senior, and masters' club competitions. The FIH is also responsible for organising the Hockey Rules Board and developing the rules for the sport.
A popular variant of field hockey is indoor field hockey, which differs in a number of respects while embodying the primary principles of hockey. Indoor hockey is a 5-a-side variant, with a field which is reduced to approximately . With many of the rules remaining the same, including obstruction and feet, there are several key variations – Players may not raise the ball unless shooting on goal, players may not hit the ball (instead utilising pushes to transfer the ball), and the sidelines are replaced with solid barriers which the ball will rebound off.〔(【引用サイトリンク】url=http://www.fih.ch/files/Sport/Rules/FIH-Rules%20of%20Hockey%202012-interactif.pdf )
(詳細はAncient Greece when the game may have been called "Κερητίζειν" ("kerētízein") because it was played with a horn ("κέρας" in Greek) and a ball-like object.〔Oikonomos, G. "Κερητίζοντες." Archaiologikon Deltion 6 (1920–1921): 56 -59; there are clear depictions of the game, but the identification with the name κερητίζειν is disputed at http://sarantakos.wordpress.com/2010/03/29/keretizein/ (English summary at http://hellenisteukontos.blogspot.com/2010/03/ancient-greek-field-hockey.html )〕 In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using a carved wooden stick and ball prior to 300 BC. In Inner Mongolia, China, the Daur people have been playing Beikou a game with some similarities to field hockey for about 1,000 years. The word 'hockey' itself was recorded in 1363 when Edward III of England issued the proclamation: "()oreover we ordain that you prohibit under penalty of imprisonment all and sundry from such stone, wood and iron throwing; handball, football, or hockey; coursing and cock-fighting, or other such idle games."〔http://www.rugbyfootballhistory.com/originsofrugby.htm accessed 12 March 2009〕
The modern game grew from English public schools in the early 19th century. The first club was in 1849 at Blackheath in south-east London, but the modern rules grew out of a version played by Middlesex cricket clubs for winter sport. Teddington Hockey Club formed the modern game by introducing the striking circle and changing the ball to a sphere from a rubber cube. The Hockey Association was founded in 1886. The first international took place in 1895 (Ireland 3, Wales 0) and the International Rules Board was founded in 1900.
Field hockey was played at the Summer Olympics in 1908 and 1920. It was dropped in 1924, leading to the foundation of the Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon (FIH) as an international governing body by seven continental European nations, and hockey was reinstated in 1928. Men's hockey united under the FIH in 1970.
The two oldest trophies are the Irish Senior Cup, which dates back to 1894, and the Irish Junior Cup, a 2nd XI only competition instituted in 1895.〔http://www.hockey.ie/contentPage/114468/about〕
In India, the Beighton Cup and the Aga Khan tournament commenced within ten years. Entering the Olympics in 1928, India won all five games without conceding a goal and won from 1932 until 1956 and then in 1964 and 1980. Pakistan won in 1960, 1968 and 1984.

In the early 1970s, artificial turf began to be used. Synthetic pitches changed most aspects of field hockey, gaining speed. New tactics and techniques such as the Indian dribble developed, followed by new rules to take account. Indian history says that similar game like hockey was played in 17th century in Punjab state of India under name 'Khido Khundi' khido is a woolen ball and khundi is stick. The switch to synthetic surfaces ended Indian and Pakistani domination because artificial turf was too expensive—in comparison to the wealthier European countries—and since the 1970s Australia, the Netherlands and Germany have dominated at the Olympics.
Women's field hockey was first played at British universities and schools. The first club, the Molesey Ladies, was founded in 1887. The first national association was the Irish Ladies Hockey Union in 1894, and though rebuffed by the Hockey Association, women's field hockey grew rapidly around the world. This led to the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (IFWHA) in 1927, though this did not include many continental European countries where women played as sections of men's associations and were affiliated to the FIH. The IFWHA held conferences every three years, and tournaments associated with these were the primary IFWHA competitions. These tournaments were non-competitive until 1975.
By the early 1970s, there were 22 associations with women's sections in the FIH and 36 associations in the IFWHA. Discussions started about a common rule book. The FIH introduced competitive tournaments in 1974, forcing the acceptance of the principle of competitive field hockey by the IFWHA in 1973. It took until 1982 for the two bodies to merge, but this allowed the introduction of women's field hockey to the Olympic games from 1980 where, as in the men's game, The Netherlands, Germany, and Australia have been consistently strong. Argentina has emerged as a team to be reckoned with since 2000, winning the world championship in 2002 and 2010 and medals at the last three Olympics.
Outside North America, participation is now fairly evenly balanced between men and women. For example, in England, England Hockey reports that as of the 2008–09 season there were 2488 registered men's teams, 1969 women's teams, 1042 boys' teams, 966 girls' teams and 274 mixed teams.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Clubs )〕 In 2006 the Irish Hockey Association reported that the gender split among its players was approximately 65% female and 35% male.〔(【引用サイトリンク】title=Ireland )〕 In its 2008 census, Hockey Australia reported 40,534 male club players and 41,542 female. However, in the United States of America, there are few field hockey clubs, most play taking place between high school or college sides, almost entirely of females. The strength of college field hockey reflects the impact of Title IX which mandated that colleges should fund men's and women's sports programmes comparably.
The game's roots in the English public girls' school mean that the game is associated in the UK with active or overachieving middle class and upper class women. For example, in ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'', George Orwell's novel set in a totalitarian London, main character Winston Smith initially dislikes Julia, the woman he comes to love, because of "the atmosphere of hockey-fields and cold baths and community hikes and general clean-mindedness which she managed to carry about with her."

抄文引用元・出典: フリー百科事典『 ウィキペディア(Wikipedia)
ウィキペディアで「field hockey」の詳細全文を読む

スポンサード リンク
翻訳と辞書 : 翻訳のためのインターネットリソース

Copyright(C) kotoba.ne.jp 1997-2016. All Rights Reserved.